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3D Printers (final)
Transcript of 3D Printers (final)
Impacts on Individual
Positive Impacts on Society
3D Printers: How it is changing our world
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3D printers has brought positive changes to the world by allowing people to create customized products at privacy of their home, fostering practical learning at academic institutes, helping companies for easy prototyping/manufacturing and aiding medical practitioners for efficient treatment. It has also brought some negative changes as a result of unintended consequences like 3D printed guns, skeleton keys and even drugs.
3D printers are used to make three-dimensional object by additive process of laying down successive layers of material to create an entire three dimensional object. While other type of printers uses ink to print in a two dimensional space of papers, 3D printers use materials lke plastic, glass, metals, edible food etc. to print in three dimensional space.
The use of 3D printers have been spread throughout personal, educational, industries and medical areas and has many positive impacts along with few negative ones.
How consumers are using 3D printers?
Design and create things like jewelery, home decorating objects, toys, parts of equipment, useful little things at home, dresses, shoes, musical instruments etc.
Biology: Model organs with internal structures
Chemistry: Molecular Structure
Graphic design: 3D version of art
Architecture: 3D models of designs
Engineering: Prototypes of creations
Geography: Maps showing topography
History: Historical artifacts
Creating prototypes by Industrial designers, mechanical engineers, packaging designers, graphic artists and marketing staff
Creating certain parts of a bigger equipment/machines
Creating final products like food, automotive, arts, architectural models etc.
Companies using 3D printers
3D printers is changing the world
1. bringing positive impacts on individual by allowing customized creation of objects and society by aiding in manufacturing at industries, fostering education and medical treatment
2. showing potential to negative consequences
Individual Driving Force
Inventor of 3D printing
Charles Hull was born and grew up in rural western Colorado. He graduated from University of Colorado with a B.S. in Engineering Physics and moved to California in 1961. Currently he lives in Canyon Country, California with his wife Anntionette.
He is the Co-Founder and Chief Technology Officer of
3D Systems. He also have patent of stereo lithography (a 3d printing process creating one layer a time using UV laser or similar power source) as a means of rapid prototyping.
In 1994 he received the Jacquard Award from the Numerical Controls Society for his invention and commercialization of stereo lithography.
Hull was also the winner of European Inventor Award 2014 in the category Non-European countries.
Some of the interesting facts about Hull includes being a pilot since 1973, his interests in photography, videography and travelling.
Hull was working as a design engineer at UV Inc and often had to build prototypes to get testable plastic parts. The process was
expensive and tedious. Sometimes they had to redesign the whole part repeatedly before testing it. Hull thought of a solution to that and made a deal with his manager to focus on the company's work during office hours and work after hours on his idea to develop a machine for faster prototyping process.
Charles company used UV rays to solidify photo polymers for providing tough coating on furniture. Hull experimented with this idea and realized that if a thin layer of photopolymers solidifies then these layers can be stacked to create a three dimensional object. Hull printed the first object ( a cup) in March 9, 1983.
Impact on Individual level
How consumers want to use 3D printers?
A study conducted by a 3D printer company reveals that 65% of American consumers want to have 3D printers at home to create and print customized items for the home. A survey was conducted among 1000 US consumers and the results are as follows:
36 % of people want 3D printer to print everyday items
35 % to print items to fix things around the house
33 % to create personalized gifts for other people
28.5 % to create personalized accessories for their gadgets
21 % to create customized jewelery and accessories
17 % to print homemade wedding favors
10 % to help invent and prototype new products and technologies
Before 3D printer
Before the invention of 3D printers industries and companies needed to create prototype of object spending a lot of time and money. Usually prototyping process took a long time; if the design was needed to be modified after review, the whole process needed to be repeated again.
Similarly customizing products was also not easy. If company produced a product in some color then it would require same time, effort and money to produce it in a different color.
“For example, in traditional manufacturing, creating a tool like a wrench involves forging, grinding, milling, and assembly, not to mention the molds, jigs and fixtures needed in the
process. By contrast, 3D printing can create an adjustable wrench in a single
operation, layer by layer. The wrench comes out fully assembled and ready
to be used with all of its moving parts.”
Some of the traditional manufacturing methods before 3D printing are:
Injection Molding: material mixed and forced into a mold
CNC Machining: material removal
Plastic Forming: stretched and formed plastic sheets
Plastic Joining : welded or ashered plastic parts
The prototyping process has been very efficient with the use of 3D printers. Now even the tiny parts can be created easily with the same 3D printers.
3D printing has enabled mass customization of products. It is easy to customize the product according to need from a single 3D design with no additional costs.
3D printing has made it possible to create objects with complex internal structure that would be almost impossible using traditional manufacturing methods. This is used especially by artist and in the aerospace sectors.
The manufacturing tools need not be reassembled or recreated for creating different types of products; the same device that creates a toy can be used to create car parts or clothes or chocolate just by changing the printing material.
Some 3D printing are considered energy-efficient compared to traditional manufacturing technology in terms of both manufacturinf process and utilising 90% of the material thus creating less waste.
Some of the 3D printing methods are:
Selective Laser Sinterinf (SLS): Laser fusion in a power bed
Stereolithography: UV laser scanning vat polymerization
Binder Jetting: Particle biding in a power bed
Poly-jet: Jetted droplets of UV cross-linked polymer
Fused Deposition Modeling: Extruded layers of thermoplastic
After 3D printer
Negative Impacts on Society
1. 3D Printed guns
Cody Wilson, a law student of University of Texas have successfully made a working plastic gun using 3D printer. Such plastic guns cannot be detected by metal detectors. Wilson not only created the working plastic gun but also shared the 3D design online allowing anyone to print the gun at their home.
2. 3D printed skeleton key
Jos Weyers and Cristian Holler have suceffuly made a skeleton key tha opens even high-securoty locks in second without even seeing the original key. The idea is to take a picture of keyhole and use software to create a bump key design.
3. Possibility of 3D printed drugs
A researcher at University of Glasglow created a prototype of a 3D machine: 'Chemputer' that makes drugs and medicine to revolutionize the pharmaceutical industry. If it is industrialized then people have the ability to misus and creates other drugs.
World first fully 3D printed gun: 'Liberator'
Impacts on economy
The Traditional Supply Chain for Consumables
New (3D Printer diffused) Supply Chain
Potentially reduce the imbalance between export and import
- Due to shift of production and distribution
Potential to create new Industries and professions
- New job positions like product designers, printer operators, material supplier, intellectual property legal conselor/advocate etc.
Developed countries more benefited than developing and under developed countries
- Under developed countries have potential of loss of manufacturing jobs
Impacts on Politics
Potential to create full functioning organs
With the ability of 3D Printers to print customized creative products and even guns and skeleton keys, there are some political and legal ramifications that comes with this technology. Effects are in the following areas:
Intellectual Property laws
Digital law and policies including digital piracy
Laws regarding manufacture of weapons
How it works?
1. Create 3D model using computer-aided design (CAD) software
2. Convert CAD model to STL (Standard tessellation language) format. This was a file format developed y 3D systems company for stereolithography apparatus (SLA) machines
3. Transferring STL file to computer controlling 3-D printer where user can select the size and orientation of the object to be created
4. The machine prepares itself for printing the object
5. The machine builds the object automatically layer by layer
6. The object might require post processing like brushing off debris.
Latest 3D printer: Carbon 3D
Evolution of 3D printers
Charles Hull printed a cup in 1983/84 with technique called stereolithography
Charles improved the designed and by mid-1980s printer could print large complex objects such as machine parts
In mid 1990s Stratasys in Rehovot, Israel, developed 3-D printer that used fused deposition modeling. A technique used by several 3-D printers from MakerBot
In 2005 Adrian Bowyer founded RepRap, an opensource project that could print most of its own components and could be build for few hundred dollars.
In 2012 alternative 3D printing processs were introduced at the entry level of market.B9Createor and then Form 1 were both lunched via kickstarter.
2012 was the year that many different mainstream media channels picked up on the technology. 2013 was a significant growth and consolidation.
As years passed by 3D printing technology has been changing; technology has gotten smaller and more affordable.
3D printer creates an three dimensional object using a computer designed 3d model of an object.
3D printer was created by Charles Hull in 1983 with the motive of easy prototyping
Before 3D printer protoyping was tedious and expensive; after 3D printers protoyping has been effecient and cost effective
3D printers has brought positive impacts on individual and society in various areas like education, medicine etc. It has also brought some negative consequences whiich is affecting the politics. It has postive impacts in economy of developed countries whereas potential negative impacts in economy developing countries.
As 3D printers have evolved thoruhgout the time it has become smaller and affordable.