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APUSH Manifest Destiny and the Progression West
Transcript of APUSH Manifest Destiny and the Progression West
First, a review of the market revolution:
Cotton producing South
Agriculture in the
Reasons for moving west?
Wealth / fleeing the
Panic of 1837?
Indian Confederacies defeated;
cycles of treaties, agreements, etc.
New wagon trails blazed to the west
New markets for goods;
Trade routes to Asia
Escape religious persecution
- outgrowth of the Age of Jackson
- fulfills Jefferson's prediction of an "empire for liberty"
- authors of the time wrote that "democracy was the culmination of all previous political experiments"
- the natural (God-given) progression of Americans to spread across the continent
John L. O'Sullivan, 1839
"The far-reaching, the boundless future will be the era of American greatness. In its magnificent domain of space and time, the nation of many nations is destined to manifest to mankind the excellence of divine principles; to establish on earth the noblest temple ever dedicated to the worship of the Most High -- the Sacred and the True. Its floor shall be a hemisphere -- its roof the firmament of the star-studded heavens, and its congregation an Union of many Republics, comprising hundreds of happy millions, calling, owning no man master, but governed by God's natural and moral law of equality, the law of brotherhood -- of 'peace and goodwill amongst men.' "
Before the westward migration could begin... What to do with Native Americans?
The "middle ground": With Indian Removal and the Black Hawk War, Native Americans were promised the Plains
Treaty of Fort Laramie, 1851
Cycle of US-Indian relations
The Santa Fe Trail
Path: Independence, Missouri to Santa Fe
Silver, gold, furs
The Mormon Trail
Mormon Faith founded by Joseph Smith
Faced religious persecution
Smith killed by anti-Mormon mob in 1844
Brigham Young led Mormons to Utah
Why? far away from persecutors
Important: each family given plots of land, communally owned access to water and timber
Called the region "Deseret" - some hoped that it would eventually become its own state.
The Oregon Trail
From Independence, MO to the Willamette Valley in Oregon
Most famous trail
Oregon: shared territory with the British (1818-1846)
Very fertile farmland, became popular desire back east
The California Trail
Split with the Oregon Trail
Americans moved into Mexican territory
Technically: illegal immigration
After war with Mexico, gold is discovered at Sutter's Mill in 1849
Result: Gold Rush --> Surge of population --> Request for statehood --> Free or slave debate again!!
Invited by Mexico
Stephen Austin, first empresario
"Old Three Hundred"
Good land - becomes attractive to others
Population surge: American "Texans" outnumber Spanish-speaking Tejanos
General Antonio Lopez de Santa Anna becomes military dictator of Mexico, suspends local rights in Texas... Leading to Revolution!
Significance of Texas?
Once annexation occurs, a border dispute with Mexico
What was life like on the trails?
How was this a continuation of past "migration"?
The Treaty of Fort Laramie: how does this demonstrate a pattern?
Commodore Matthew Perry to Japan, 1853 - a sign of later expansionism?
What impact did "manifest destiny" have on shaping an American identity?
AP Theme: Work, Exchange, and Technology: how did innovations in markets, transportation and technology create this change?
Next class: Texas = conflict, then war with Mexico. What were the political consequences of manifest destiny?
Theme in History: Environment and Geography
How did environmental factors shape migration?
Which areas of the west would be prone to the expansion of slavery vs. those that would not?