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Organization of Forms & Space
Transcript of Organization of Forms & Space
Organization of Form & Space
Maged Elsamny, PhD
Space within a Space
A space may be contained within the volume of a larger space.
The field of a space may overlap the volume of another space.
Two spaces may abut each other or share a common border.
Spaces Linked by a Common Space
Two spaces may rely on an intermediary space for their relationship.
, New Canaan, Connecticut, 1949, Philip Johnson
, Vierzehnheiligen, Germany, 1744–72, Balthasar Neumann
The one-story space flows into the larger volume of which it is a part and to the outdoors.
, 17th century, Fischer von Erlach
, Chiswick, England, 1729, Lord Burlington & William Kent
, Pienza, Italy, c. 1460, Bernardo Rosselino
(Project), 1966, John Hejduk
A central, dominant space about which a number of secondary spaces are grouped
Spaces grouped by proximity or the sharing of a common visual trait or relationship
Spaces organized within the field of a structural grid or other 3D framework
A central space from which linear organizations of space extend in a radial manner
A linear sequence of repetitive spaces
Mosque of Tinmal
, Morocco, 1153–54
Clear difference in
To endow itself with a higher attention-value, the contained space may share the form of the enveloping shape, but be oriented in a different manner. This would create a secondary grid and a set of dynamic, residual spaces within the larger space.
The contained space may also differ in form from the enveloping space in order to strengthen its image as a freestanding volume. This contrast in form may indicate a functional difference between the two spaces or the symbolic importance of the contained space.
The interlocking portion of the two volumes can be shared equally by each space.
The interlocking portion can merge with one of the spaces and become an integral part of its volume.
The interlocking portion can develop its own integrity as a space that serves to link the two original spaces.
Limit visual and physical access between two adjacent spaces, reinforce the individuality of each space, and accommodate their differences.
Appear as a freestanding plane in a single volume of space.
Be defined with a row of columns that allows a high degree of visual and spatial continuity between the two spaces.
Be merely implied with a change in level or a contrast in surface material or texture between the two spaces. This and the preceding two cases can also be read as single volumes of space which are divided into two related zones.
The spaces are individualistic in size, shape, and form. The walls that enclose them adapt their forms to accommodate the differences between adjacent spaces.
The intermediate space can differ in form and orientation from the two spaces to express its linking function.
The two spaces, as well as the intermediate space, can be equivalent in size and shape and form a linear sequence of spaces.
The intermediate space can itself become linear in form to link two spaces that are distant from each other, or join a whole series of spaces that have no direct relationship to one another.
The intermediate space can, if large enough, become the dominant space in the relationship, and be capable of organizing a number of spaces about itself.
The form of the intermediate space can be residual in nature and be determined solely by the forms and orientations of the two spaces being linked.
A centralized organization is a stable, concentrated composition that consists of a number of secondary spaces grouped around a large, dominant, central space.
The central, unifying space of the organization is generally regular in form and large enough in size to gather a number of secondary spaces about its perimeter.
The secondary spaces of the organization may be equivalent to one another in function, form, and size, and create an overall configuration that is geometrically regular and symmetrical about two or more axes.
by Leonardo Da Vinci
San Lorenzo Maggiore
, Milan, Italy, c. A.D. 480
The secondary spaces may differ from one another in form or size in order to respond to individual requirements of function, express their relative importance, or acknowledge their surroundings. This differentiation among the secondary spaces also allows the form of a centralized organization to respond to the environmental conditions of its site.
Centralized organizations whose forms are relatively compact and geometrically regular can be used to:
• establish points or places in space
• terminate axial conditions
• serve as an object-form within a defined field or volume of space
These drawings are based on Leonardo da Vinci’s sketches of ideal church plans. c. 1490
(First Version), Rome, c. 1503, Donato Bramante
, Caprarola, 1547–49, Giacomo da Vignola
Villa Capra (The Rotunda
), Vicenza, Italy, 1552–67, Andrea Palladio
A linear organization consists essentially of a series of spaces. These spaces can either be directly related to one another or be linked through a separate and distinct linear space.
A linear organization usually consists of repetitive spaces which are alike in size, form, and function. It may also consist of a single linear space that organizes along its length a series of spaces that differ in size, form, or function. In both cases, each space along the sequence has an exterior exposure.
Spaces that are functionally or symbolically important to the organization can occur anywhere along the linear sequence and have their importance articulated by their size and form. Their significance can also be emphasized by their location:
• at the end of the linear sequence
• offset from the linear organization
• at pivotal points of a segmented linear form
The form of a linear organization is inherently flexible and can respond readily to various conditions of its site. It can adapt to changes in topography, maneuver around a body of water or a stand of trees, or turn to orient spaces to capture sunlight and views. It can be straight, segmented, or curvilinear. It can run horizontally across its site, diagonally up a slope, or stand vertically as a tower.
The form of a linear organization can relate to other forms in its context by:
• linking and organizing them along its length
• serving as a wall or barrier to separate them into different fields
• surrounding and enclosing them within a field of space
Curved and segmented forms of linear organizations enclose a field of exterior space on their concave sides and orient their spaces toward the center of the field. On their concave sides, these forms appear to front space and exclude it from their fields.
, a dwelling type of the member tribes of the Iroquois Confederacy in North America, c. 1600.
, St. Andrews University, Scotland, 1964–68, James Stirling
(Project), Christopher Owen
Typical Upper-floor Plan, Baker House
, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1948, Alvar Aalto
A radial organization of space combines elements of both centralized and linear organizations. It consists of a dominant central space from which a number of linear organizations extend in a radial manner. Whereas a centralized organization is an introverted scheme that focuses inward on its central space, a radial organization is an extroverted plan that reaches out to its context. With its linear arms, it can extend and attach itself to specific elements or features of its site.
As with centralized organizations, the central space of a radial organization is generally regular in form. The linear arms, for which the central space is the hub, may be similar to one another in form and length and maintain the regularity of the organization’s overall form.
The radiating arms may also differ from one another in order to respond to individual requirements of function and context.
A specific variation of a radial organization is the pinwheel pattern wherein the linear arms of the organization extend from the sides of a square or rectangular central space. This arrangement results in a dynamic pattern that visually suggests a rotational movement about the central space.
Herbert F. Johnson House
(Wingspread), Wind Point, Wisconsin, 1937, Frank Lloyd Wright
Secretariat Building, UNESCO Headquarters
, Place de Fontenoy, Paris,
1953–58, Marcel Breuer
, Berlin, 1869–79, August Busse and Heinrich Herrmann
Sharing a common shape
Organized by an axis
Clustered about an entry
Grouped along a path
A loop path
Contained within a space
, Trichur, India, 11th century
S. Carlo alle Quattro Fontane
, Rome, 1633–41, Francesco Borromini
A grid is created by two, usually perpendicular, sets of parallel lines that establish a regular pattern of points at their intersections. Projected into the third dimension, the grid pattern is transformed into a set of repetitive, modular units of space. Its pattern establishes a stable set or field of reference points and lines in space with which the spaces of a grid organization, although dissimilar in size, form, or function, can share a common relationship.
Efficiency: Be economical
Point of View: Be clear about design intent.
Clarity: Be articulate
Accuracy: Avoid presenting distorted or incorrect information
Continuity: Each segment of a presentation should relate to what precedes it and what follows, reinforcing all the other segments of the presentation.
Unity: Be organized
Use white space and alignment to reinforce the organization of the graphic and verbal information of a presentation
If you want two drawings to be read as individual figures, the space between them should be equal to the space between each drawing and the nearest edge of the field.
Moving the two drawings closer together causes them to be read as a related group.
If you move the drawings closer still, they will appear to be a single view rather than two related but individual views.
A tonal value can be used to define a field within a large field. A darker background for an elevation drawing, for example, can merge with a section drawing. The foreground for a perspective can become the field for a plan view of the building.
The size of a graphic symbol should be in proportion to the scale of the drawing and readable from the anticipated viewing distance.
The size and tonal value of a graphic symbol determines its visual weight. If a large symbol or typeface is required for readability but a low value is mandatory for a balanced composition, then use an outline symbol or letter style.
Place graphic symbols as close as possible to the drawing to which they refer. Whenever possible, use spacing and alignment instead of boxes or frames to form visual sets of information.
The most important characteristic of lettering is
The character of the typeface we use
should be appropriate to the design
being presented and not detract from the drawings themselves.
Serifs enhance the recognition and readability of letter forms
serif and non serif typefaces in a single title or body of text.
Lowercase lettering is appropriate
throughout a presentation.
The differences among lowercase characters are more distinct, making lowercase lettering generally easier to read than text composed of all capitals.
Determine the range of lettering sizes by judging the distance from which the audience will view the presentation
Space letters by optically equalizing the areas between the letter forms rather than by mechanically measuring the distance between the extremities of each letter
Guidelines are required to control the height and line spacing of hand lettering
A grid provides the most flexibility for laying out a series of drawings and text blocks on a panel or series of boards
The grid may be square or rectangular, uniform or irregular
We can display drawings, diagrams, and t ext in individual boxes or frames
An important drawing may take up more than one box or frame
Graphics and text may be integrated in an organic manner.
A symmetrical layout works best in presenting symmetrical designs.
Centralized formats are suitable when presenting a plan surrounded by elevation views, an expanded paraline drawing, or a key drawing surrounded by detailed portions drawn at a larger scale.
• If a series of drawings are treated in different ways or are of different types, you can unify them by framing or boxing them in a uniform manner.
• We can display drawings horizontally with text below each drawing to form related columns.
Avoid using a double or triple frame around a drawing. Doing so can create the impression of a figure on a background that itself has a background. Attention would be diverted from the figure, where it belongs, to the frame around it.