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AP Human - Demographic Transition Model
Transcript of AP Human - Demographic Transition Model
Chp. 2 Key Issue 3
What is fertility rate?
When (10,000 B.C.E. - 1750 C.E.) - Hunter Gatherer tribes
High birth rates/death rates
Pop. growth very slow
Early Agrarian (Agriculture) society
High rates of contagious disease
No country today is in this
Great Britain is 1st country to enter stage 2 with the Industrial Revolution (Late 1750's-> Early 1800's)
High birth rates, death rates decline (Basic hygiene and medicine introduced)
NIR (Natural Increase Rate) increases sharply
High Population growth from decrease in deaths
Improvements in food supply, agriculture technology, and medical understanding drop rates
"Later industrial" (Starts around 1900's)
Birth rates decline sharply
Death rates decline slowly (Even better medicine and technology)
Growth occurs, but at reduced rate
People migrate more to urban areas (the city)
Fewer kids needed
Increase in female literacy and workplace
Improved contraceptive (birth control availability)
"Post Industrial" - Modern Countries
Birth/Death rates both low
Pop growth low or zero
Life expectancy high (Doctors highly available & tech. advanced)
More equal rights for gender/working
Urban areas are high tech, not large families
USA, Japan, Developed Countries)
Check it out!
Afghanistan - female: 24.2% (2015 est.)
Mexico - female: 94.2% (2012 est.)
Portugal - female: 99.7% (2015 est.)
Educated women are known to take informed reproductive and healthcare decisions. These result in population stabilization and better infant care reflected by lower birth rates and infant mortality rates (IMRs), respectively.
Chad - 6.2; 31.9 %
Germany 1.4; 99 %
USA - 1.9; 98.8 %
Female Literacy Rate
Stage 5 ??? (Really Advanced
birth rate of a country declines to the point where it is lower than the death rate
NIR is negative and population is declining
Future labor shortage???
How do we support the older retirees???
Whether persuaded by the high costs of raising a family in cities or the enticing opportunities of employment that delay child bearing, birth rates decline well below replacement level
"Do it for Denmark!"
To sweeten the deal, Spies Travel (Company in Denmark) told customers to book with their “ovulation discount,” and if they could prove they conceived on vacation, they’d win baby supplies for three years (and a child-friendly vacation)
"HAVE A BABY, WIN A FRIDGE RUSSIA"
So, in 2007, the government declared September 12 National Day of Conception, in the hopes that giving couples the day off from work to do their civic duty would result in a baby spike nine months later, on Russia’s national day, June 12. Women who gave birth that day could win refrigerators, money, and even cars.