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Iran Presentation

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Elie Obeid

on 17 June 2014

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Transcript of Iran Presentation

WHERE IS IRAN?
ECONOMIC
NATIONALIZATION

TRADE BARRIERS
IRAN
Rouhani
Khomeini
Shia
majority
Employment
Oil & Gas
1950
Britain & America back a coup after Iran nationalises its oil fields.
They install a new Shah who allows them to keep the profits from oil exploitation


1979
The Shah is driven into exile
Islamic Republic of Iran formed
Revolution led by Ayatollah Kohmeini
Legacy of mistrust of US & EU

1980 - 2010
8 years' Iran-Iraq War
USA backs Iraq
30 years of diplomatic isolation & economic sanctions for Iran
2013
President Rouhani opens up relations with USA
Controversy over Iranian nuclear enrichment program
Trade hit by sanctions
IRAN has different cultural roots to other
Arabic countries:
550 BC to 636 AD
part of
Persian
Empire
Ruled by
Greeks
like Alexander the Great
"Helenic" origins
636 AD

Arabs'
invasion introduces Islam
1800 AD

Russian
and
British
trade influence
1935 AD

Persia

renamed

Iran
Culture
Politics
Sanctions & Economic Growth
History
economy
resources
Iran is in the
Middle East
Economic
neo - colonialism
Iran asserts its independence
Iran goes it alone
Iran reopens dialogue - on its own terms
Iran has witnessed strained relations with the economies of the world
US initiated a trade embargo that led to economic sanctions on the country
Iran experienced one of the worst economic contractions in its history.
The sanctions followed as a result of Iran’s refusal to halt its ambition of building a nuclear stockpile
Iran insisted that its nuclear enrichment was for energy generation and for peaceful purposes
Many countries alleged that its motive is to build nuclear weapons.



OIL
NATIONALIZATION
1951
Anglo-Persian Oil Company
The Anglo-Persian Oil Company (APOC) was an English company
Founded in 1908 following the discovery of a large oil field in Masjed Soleiman, Iran
APOC was the first company to extract petroleum from Iran
In 1935 APOC was renamed the Anglo-Iranian Oil Company (AIOC)
In 1954 it became the British Petroleum Company (BP), one of the antecedents of the modern BP plc
Iran's oil industry has experienced expansion and contraction
Rapid growth at the time of World War I, declined soon after the start of World War II
Recovery began in 1943 with the reopening of supply routes to the United Kingdom
The oil was produced by the AIOC, but political difficulties arose with the Iranian government in the postwar period
Iran sought to rid itself of British political influence and the exploitation by AIOC
Negotiations between AIOC and the government failed
As a result of Britain's boycott and the Abadan Crisis, Iranian production dropped to virtually zero
On British initiative the CIA overthrew Prime Minister of Iran, a consortium of oil companies was allowed in under a by then standard 50/50 profit-sharing deal
The British had a major share in their most valuable foreign asset




MEAN DAMAGE RATIO, % OF REPLACEMENT VALUE

Nuclear
Program
woodland
Wealth
Well being
HOW'S THE ECONOMY DOING?
PER
CAPITA
INCOME

TRADE
BLOCS

ECONOMIC OVERVIEW



Iran is the second largest economy in the Middle East and North Africa region in terms
of GDP - US$484 billion in 2012 (after Saudi Arabia)
It is characterized by a large hydrocarbon sector, small scale private agriculture
and services, and a noticeable state presence in manufacturing and finance
In 2010, the service sector (including Government) contributed 55 percent to GDP,
followed by manufacturing with 22 percent, agriculture with 14 percent, and oil and gas
with 9 percent
Iran ranks second in the world in natural gas reserves and third in oil reserves
It is the second largest OPEC oil producer; output averaged about 4 million barrels per day in recent years
Revenues from oil and gas exports accounted for about 60 percent of government revenues in 2011/12 and are Iran's chief source of foreign exchange
Thus, aggregate GDP and Government revenues are intrinsically volatile;
they fluctuate with international prices of these commodities despite the Oil
Stabilization Fund and the newly established national development fund (in 2011/12).




 


TRADE SANCTIONS


U.S. economic and political sanctions against Iran has roots in 1979, after Tehran hostage crisis
On November 14, 1979, President Jimmy Carter declared an emergency and ordered a freeze on all Iranian assets
Additional sanctions were imposed when, in January 1984, Iran was implicated in the bombing of the U.S. Marine base in Beirut, Lebanon

Concern over Iran's nuclear program surfaced later, and the following areas are targeted by significant U.S. sanctions:
- Financial dealings, nuclear material, weapons development, trade & investment, assets freeze, petroleum products......


Definition: Employment to population ratio is the proportion of a country's population that is employed. Ages 15-24 are generally considered the youth population

Employment to population ratio, ages 15-24, total (%) in Iran was 24.10 as of 2011. Its highest value over the past 20 years was 28.50 in 1991, while its lowest value was 23.50 in 2008



Employment to population ratio
“Immediately following the Revolution, overall inequality fell substantially but has since remained fairly stable at levels well above those observed in countries such as Egypt . It is nonetheless much lower than in Latin America.

Rural inequality, which was much lower than urban inequality during the Iran-Iraq war years (1980-88), increased sharply after the war, reaching the urban level, most likely because of government policies such as ending the rationing (that had protected the poor from inflation during the war).”


DISTRIBUTION of WEALTH

Iran plunges 62 places in quality of life ranking in comparison with other countries over the past five years

Thursday, 9 May 2013

“Chairman of the Majlis Economic Committee Arsalan Fathipour said that Iran, which was ranked 88th of 194 nations in 2005, plunged to the 150th spot in 2010 in quality of life of citizens. Living expenses, said Fathipour, had increased by 71% in Iran”

 
source: Iran Daily Review


WHAT'S THE QUALITY OF
LIFE LIKE?

Suffering in an economy dragged down by years of mismanagement and the effects of international sanctions, Iran’s increasingly impoverished middle class voted in huge numbers for President Hassan Rouhani, who promised to reignite growth by restoring ties with the rest of the world

Mr. Rouhani’s government can promise only a reduction in the inflation rate to 25 percent in 2015, from 42 percent in 2013 and 32 percent in 2014


THE ROLE OF THE GOVERNMENT
Iran is in the North
East of the region
Bordered by
Pakistan,
Afghanistan and
Turkey - Non
Middle Eastern country
Iraq, the only Middle
Eastern country that it borders
The capital of Iran is Tehran
Iran Hot Facts:

Population of
78 million
18th in
the world

Land Area
1.6 M Km2
20th in
the world

Iran is the only country with a Shia Muslim majority
There are two main mountains
ranges:
The Elburz
The Zagros
The largest river is:
The Karun
It is 950 km long
It has been dammed to generate electricity
IRAN PRESENTATION
The election of President Hasan Rouhani improved the relationship with the West
Iran agreed to allow UN inspectors into its enrichment facility to monitor the extent of nuclear build up in a path-breaking deal
Decisions were taken to loosen up the economic sanctions slowly
Concerns have been voiced that the present rate of lifting the sanctions would not be adequate to revive the economy of Iran

This situation had stopped the democratic transition in Iran
The coup had significantly contributed to the 1979 Iranian Revolution after which the oil industry would be nationalized again
Iranian economists, said that all the promises made by Mr. Rouhani were realistic, but that “real action” was needed. “We should completely liberalize our economy; there is no other choice,” they argued. “We need to attract investors at any costs. Our option is probable death, or certain death.”


IRANIAN ECONOMY

PRESENTED TO
Mr. Jean-Pierre Abboud
CREATED BY
ISABELLE KHALIL
Thank you
HISTORY OF IRAN
WHAT SHAPED THE CULTURE?
Full transcript