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Focus 3: Specialized Cells

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Nicole Martin

on 11 September 2017

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Transcript of Focus 3: Specialized Cells

Specialized Cells
Focus 3
Essential Question
What are the different types of specialized cells in humans and what are their functions?

I Love being multicellular!
Plants and animals are more complex, multicellular organisms.
They contain different types of cells for different functions.
Cells that make up complex multicellular organisms are not all the same.
Specialized Cells
A cell that is suited to perform a specific job or function for an organism

Not just animals cells
Plants and fungi also have specialized cells

Specialized Cells
Today we will learn about...
Red Blood Cell
White Blood Cell
Nerve Cell
Sperm Cell
Muscle Cell
Stem Cell**
Unspecialized cells that reproduce themselves

Stem Cells
Have the capacity to differentiate into one of many types of specialized cells

Undifferentiated- have not been given instructions of what type of cell to become

Red Blood Cell
Red Blood Cells
Structure & Function
S: Double concave shape
sci name: erythrocyte
White Blood Cell
sci name: leukocyte
White Blood Cells
Structure & Function
S: Granules containing digestive enzymes in cytoplasm.
A WBC engulfing and destorying a foreign cell.
Sperm Cell
Used for reproduction by the male.

Sperm Cell
S: Large flagellum and many mitochondria for swimming.
Nerve Cell
sci name: Neuron
Used for sensory and motor functions in the body.

Structure & Function
sci name: male gamete
Nerve Cell
Structure & Function
S: Dendrites reach for adjacent neurons.
Muscle Cell
sci name: myocte
Muscle Cells
Structure & Function
S: Long and thin with many mitochondria.
Workbook Activity
1. Name each cell type
2. Color each cell type
3. Write the structure next to each
4. Write the function next to each
5. HONORS - EXPLAIN how structure and function are related in each.
Exit Ticket
Do you believe adipose (fat) tissue will have many mitochondria?


Why or why not?
BOCW
Identify this cell type:
In what TWO ways is its structure perfect for its function?
Essential Question
What are the two major types of specialized plant cells and what are their functions?
Plants are also multicellular and have many different cell types!
Plant cell under a microscope
cell wall
vacuole
nucleus
Vascular Tissue
Runs throughout the plant

Transports materials between roots and shoots.

There are two types!
Xylem
Nonliving cells
Transport tissue in vascular plants
Function - Carries WATER and nutrients throughout the plant
Only goes ONE WAY

Xylem
Structure & Function
S: Long straw-like cells.

F: Drawing WATER up from the roots to the leaves.
Phloem
Living cells
Transport of SUGARS from source tissues to other parts of plant
Goes BOTH WAYS

Phloem
Structure & Function
S: Special conducting cells.

F: Have walls dividing them so sugars can move BOTH WAYS
xylem
phloem
Left Side Activity
xylem
phloem
Make a VENN DIAGRAM for xylem & phloem!
What is happening here?
Exit Ticket
What in the human body can you compare to xylem and phloem?

How are they similar?
BOCW
WHY is the structure of a cell so important to its function?

Give a specific example!

Stem Cells
Essential Question
What are stem cells and why are they important to our bodies?
Introducing
Stem Cells
A life story...
Starts with 1 fertilized egg...
splits into two daughter cells...
cells continue to divide...
and divide...
and divide some more...
Eventually they must make different types of cells to make a baby...
or an adult!
What is a stem cell?
Stem Cell

Undifferentiated cell that has not been given a specific job or function yet, once it is given a specific job it is then differentiated/specialized
Answer these questions on your
1. What are the two important functions of stem cells in our bodies?

2. How does life begin?

3. What would happen to specialized cells without stem cells?

4. What decision do stem cells make each time they divide?

5. What are some medical applications of stem cells?

6. ONE OTHER interesting thing you learned!
Why self-renew AND differentiate?
WHERE are stem cells found?
2 places
Embryonic Stem Cells

Tissue Stem Cells


In body of fetus, baby and adult throughout life.

blastocyst - a very early embryo
Embryonic (ES) Stem Cells
Embryonic stem (ES) cells are taken from inside the blastocyst, a very early stage embryo. The blastocyst is a ball of about 50-100 cells and it is not yet implanted in the womb. It is made up of an outer layer of cells, a fluid-filled space and a group of cells called the inner cell mass. ES cells are found in the inner cell mass.

What can ES Stem Cells do?
PLURIPOTENT- capable
of developing into any
type of cell, these are very
important to research

Challenge
Biggest
How do we get the stem cell to become the type of specialized cell we want?
Tissue Stem Cells
where to find them
We all have stem cells in our bodies all the time.

They are essential for keeping us fit and healthy.

They replace cells that are damaged or used up.
What can Tissue Stem Cells do?
MULTIPOTENT-can give rise
to other types of cells but
it is limited in its ability to differentiate.


Usually only become specialized cells in their "home" system.
Pros
Cons
Stem Cell Research Articles
1. Find & underline WHO is doing the research and WHERE it is being done.
2. Find WHAT they are researching and circle or highlight it (ie. disease or process).
3. Draw squares around three SCIENCE WORDS that you find in the article. Include one you don't know the meaning of.
4. Read the article and circle or highlight the MAIN IDEA.
BOCW
Differentiate between adult tissue stem cells and embryonic stem cells.
Philosophical Chairs
Ground Rules
1. Maximum of 1 minute talking at a time.
2. Must repeat or rephrase what last person just said.
3. Wait 3 seconds before responding to make sure other person is done.
4. Maximum of 5 times contributing.
5. You can get up and change positions any time to express agreement.
6. Back your opinions up with facts, figured, quotes from text!
7. RESPECT! No snickering, judging or being critical of others! This is the most important rule!!!
Should scientists be performing medical research using stem cells?
Honors Mini-Presentation
Gene Expression
How STEM cells are able to differentiate into all different specialized cells.
Same genes are expressed differently to make different characteristics.
PAGE 71
4 days development
IMPORTANT!!!!

Carry oxygen throughout the body in the blood.
F: Allows them to fit through small vessels
Fight off infections as part of your immune system.
F: Allows cell to attack foreign invaders.
F: To carry genetic information to the egg.
F: To carry electrical signals throughout the nervous system.
Enable movement of different parts of the body. There are several different types.
F: Needs energy to contract to cause movement.
Skip the STEM CELL for now!
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