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Cellular Reproduction Concept Map

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Anna Hickey

on 17 June 2014

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Transcript of Cellular Reproduction Concept Map

Cellular Reproduction Concept Map
Cellular Reproduction
Meiosis
Occurs in prokaryotic cells

A form of asexual reproduction; the DNA of the original cell is copied identically

Because there is no nucleus in prokaryotic cells, the cell essentially grows until it splits in half
Binary Fission
Occurs in single-celled eukaryotic organisms

A form of asexual reproduction; the DNA of the original cell is copied identically, producing a pair of diploid cells.
Mitosis
(I) Interphase
The nucleus of the cell dissolves.
Chromosomes form from the chromatin.
Centrioles migrate
*(P) Prophase
Normal cell function; the state that cells spend most of their lives in.
There are 3 parts of reproduction in Interphase:
G1 Phase is when a cell grows.
S (or synthesis) Phase is when the DNA of the cell is doubled.
G2 Phase is another period of cellular growth.
*(M) Metaphase
Chromosomes line up at the equator.
More spindle fibers emerge.
*(A) Anaphase
Chromosomes are pulled to opposite sides and eventually split apart.
*(T) Telophase
The nuclei reform.
A cleavage furrow forms in an animal cell (a cell plate in plant cells).
This is closely followed by cytokinesis; division of the cytoplasm.
(I) Interphase
The result is two "daughter" cells with identical DNA.
Because the DNA of the original cell is copied and not combined, mitosis produces diploid cells.
Centriole
an organelle that aids in cell division in animal cells only
Nucleus
A part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
Chromatin
Clusters of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of a cell
chromosomes other than sex chromosomes
Autosomes
Somatic
Cells
cells that are not sex cells
Diploid
a cell containing two sets of DNA, i. e. 46 chromosomes or 23 pairs.
One of the 23 pairs of chromosomes in the human, contains genes that will determine the sex of the individual
Sex Chromosome
Gamete
A haploid cell such as an egg or sperm. Gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
Haploid
a cell containing two sets of DNA, i. e. 46 chromosomes or 23 pairs.
Fibers that appear during mitosis. Chromosomes attach to the spindle fibers at the centromere and move back and forth between the poles on the fibers.
Spindle Fibers
Disappearing Nucleus
Chromosome
A gene-carrying structure found in the nucleus.
Equator
A line across the
center of a cell.
Histones
Cause the DNA to be spread out like spaghetti in a bowl, or tightly condensed into the x-shaped chromosomes. Help maintain the shape of the chromosome and aid in the tight packing of DNA.
Centromere
A specialized condensed region of each chromosome that appears during mitosis where the chromatids are held together to form an X shape.
Chromatid
Either of the two strands of a replicated chromosome joined at the centromere
Proteins attached to the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle.
Kinetochore
A group of microtubules and proteins involved in the movements of chromosomes during mitosis.
Mitotic Spindle
Fibers that extend across the dividing cell from centrosome to centrosome.
Polar Fibers
Cleavage Furrow
The area of the cell membrane that pinches in and eventually separates the dividing cell
Reforming
Nucleus
Reforming
Nucleus
And now, these
two cells will
undergo this
cycle all over
again!
(I) Interphase 1
The nucleus of the cell dissolves.
Chromosomes form from the chromatin.
Centrioles migrate
*(P) Prophase 1
Normal cell function; the state that cells spend most of their lives in.
There are 3 parts of reproduction in Interphase:
G1 Phase is when a cell grows.
S (or synthesis) Phase is when the DNA of the cell is doubled.
G2 Phase is another period of cellular growth.
*(M) Metaphase 1
Tetrads line up.
Crossover possible here.
*(A) Anaphase 1
Tetrads separate and/or exchange
*(T) Telophase 1
The nuclei reform.
A cleavage furrow forms.
Centriole
an organelle that aids in cell division in animal cells only
Nucleus
A part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction
Chromatin
Clusters of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of a cell
Spindle Fibers
Homologous
Chromosomes
Chromosomes that have the same sequence of genes, that have the same structure, and that pair during meiosis.
Equator
A line across the
center of a cell.
Histones
Cause the DNA to be spread out like spaghetti in a bowl, or tightly condensed into the x-shaped chromosomes. Help maintain the shape of the chromosome and aid in the tight packing of DNA.
Tetrad
Each pair of homologous chromosomes.
The exchange of corresponding segments of the chromatids of two homologous chromosomes during meiosis.
Crossing Over
A group of microtubules and proteins involved in the movements of chromosomes during mitosis.
Mitotic Spindle
Fibers that extend across the dividing cell from centrosome to centrosome.
Polar Fibers
Cleavage Furrow
Reforming
Nucleus
Reforming
Nucleus
(I) Interphase 2
The result is two "daughter" cells with different DNA with a very, very small chance of it being identical.
Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
Growth
G1 Phase
S Phase
DNA is synthesized
G2 Phase
Growth
G0 (zero) Phase
When a cell exits the
cell cycle and cannot
copy DNA or prepare
to divide or reproduce.
G2 Checkpoint
The cell will only pass through
this checkpoint if it has adequate
energy, size and DNA
M Checkpoint
Determines whether or not all sister
chromatids are correctly attached to
the spindle fibers.
P
M
A
T
Interphase
Cytokinesis
The cell will only pass through
this checkpoint if it has adequate
energy, size and DNA
G1 Checkpoint
Division of the cytoplasm
Mitosis or
Meiosis

The Cell Cycle
A visual representation of the stages
a cell goes through in it's lifetime.
(P) Prophase 2
(M) Metaphase 2
(A) Anaphase 2
(I) Interphase
*(T) Telophase 2
Tetrads Crossing Over
Sister Chromatids Split.
Crossing
Over
3 Options in Meiosis
Independent
Assortment
Random Fertilization
Homologous pairs of chromosomes with regard to each other is random.
There is a 50/50 chance that a particular daughter cell will receive a paternal or maternal chromosome.
The random combination of egg and sperm
Full transcript