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Scientific Revolution

A guide through the major figures of the Scientific Revolution
by

Jason Vanderburgh

on 6 November 2014

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Transcript of Scientific Revolution

Scientific Revolution
Scientific Method
Nicolaus Copernicus
Galileo Galilei
Do Now: How would you prove to somebody that the Earth revolves around the sun?
Importance
Importance of the scientific revolution
#1: Emphasis on reason and systematic observation of nature
#2: Formulation of the scientific method
#3: Expansion of scientific knowledge
In 1543, his heliocentric theory argued that the planets revolved around the sun. He was afraid to publish his 25-year study because...
Catholic Church's view was a Biblical, geocentric view - the planets revolve around the Earth.
Extremely important Italian scientist:
- Built the first telescope!
- His books (Starry Messenger and Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems) argued that Copernicus and Kepler were right.
- Catholic Church put him on trial during Inquisition in 1633. Under threat of torture, he recanted his views and lived under house arrest.
Johannes Kepler
Kepler was an assistant to Tycho Brahe in the early 17th century in Germany. He used Brahe's work to create a new law of planetary motion:
Elliptical Orbits!
Proved mathmatically that the planets could revolve around the sun. Go Math!
"...You have rendered yourself according to this Holy Office vehemently suspect of heresy, namely of having held and believed a doctrine that is false and contrary to the divine and Holy Scripture; namely that the Sun is the center of the world and does not move from east to west... We condemn you to formal imprisonment at our pleasure."
~ Decision of the Papal Court
William Harvey
In 1628, William Harvey discovers that blood circulates throughout the body, pumped by the heart.
Fun fact #1: Physician to King James I
Fun (?) fact #2: Known to have done experiments on the cadavers of both his father and his sister.
Not the only guy to use cadavers in research: Andreas Vesalius dissected human corpses as well as Edward Jenner, who developed the Smallpox vaccine. You don't want smallpox, do you? Do you?!
I
Isaac Newton
In 1687, Sir Isaac Newton published one of the most important scientific books of all time, The Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy.
*Isaac proved Three Laws of Motion and the Law of Gravity: Every object in the universe attracts every other object. The amount of attraction depends on mass and distance of objects.
Famous story of him getting bonked by an apple falling off a tree. Cute...
*He believed God created the orderly universe like a huge clock; to Newton, God used these scientific laws to set the world into motion.
What do you think? Can science and religion work together like this? Can science ever prove religion?
1520-1720
Definition: A logical procedure for gathering and testing ideas.
- Start with a problem based on observation, then make a hypothesis (guess), and finally test it out by experimentation and analysis of the data.

Two big names develop this:
1. Francis Bacon - Instead of listening to Greek philosophers, we need to experiment ourselves "empiricism"
2. Rene Descartes - Everything should be doubted until proven by mathematics and logic. Only thing that we can know for certain is that we exist:
"I Think, therefore, I am."
Full transcript