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Jesse Rinard

on 2 March 2013

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Transcript of Tilapia

Tilapia by Jesse Rinard Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Perciformes
Family: Cichlidae
Subfamily: Pseudocrenilabrinae
Tribe: Tilapiini
Genus: Tilapia
Tilapia bakossiorum, Tilapia baloni, Tilapia bemini, Tilapia bilineata, Tilapia brevimanus, Tilapia busumana, Tilapia buttikoferi, Tilapia bythobates, Tilapia cabrae, Tilapia cameronensis, Tilapia camerunensis, Tilapia cessiana, Tilapia coffea, Tilapia congica, Tilapia dageti, Tilapia deckerti, Tilapia discolor, Tilapia ejagham, Tilapia flava, Tilapia fusiforme, Tilapia guinasana, Tilapia guineensis, Tilapia gutturosa, Tilapia imbriferna, Tilapia ismailiaensis, Tilapia jallae, Tilapia joka, Tilapia kottae, Tilapia louka, Tilapia margaritacea, Tilapia nigrans, Tilapia mariae, Tilapia nyongana, Tilapia rendalli, Tilapia rheophila, Tilapia ruweti, Tilapia snyderae, Tilapia sparrmanii, Tilapia spongotroktis, Tilapia tholloni, Tilapia thysi, Tilapia walteri, Tilapia zillii

Genus: Oreochromis
Oreochromis amphimelas, Oreochromis andersonii, Oreochromis angolensis, Oreochromis aureus, Oreochromis chungruruensis, Oreochromis esculentus, Oreochromis hunteri, Oreochromis ismailiaensis, Oreochromis jipe, Oreochromis karomo, Oreochromis karongae, Oreochromis korogwe, Oreochromis lepidurus, Oreochromis leucostictus, Oreochromis lidole, Oreochromis macrochir, Oreochromis malagarasi, Oreochromis mortimeri, Oreochromis mossambicus, Oreochromis mweruensis, Oreochromis niloticus, Oreochromis pangani, Oreochromis pangani girigan, Oreochromis pangani pangani, Oreochromis placidus, Oreochromis placidus placidus, Oreochromis placidus ruvumae, Oreochromis rukwaensis, Oreochromis saka, Oreochromis salinicola, Oreochromis schwebischi, Oreochromis shiranus, Oreochromis shiranus chilwae, Oreochromis shiranus shiranus, Oreochromis spilurus, Oreochromis spilurus niger, Oreochromis spilurus percivali, Oreochromis spilurus spilurus, Oreochromis squamipinnis, Oreochromis tanganicae, Oreochromis upembae, Oreochromis urolepis , Oreochromis urolepis hornorum, Oreochromis urolepis urolepis, Oreochromis variabilis

Genus: Sarotherodon
Sarotherodon caroli, Sarotherodon caudomarginatus, Sarotherodon galilaeus, Sarotherodon knauerae, Sarotherodon lamprechti, Sarotherodon linnellii, Sarotherodon lohbergeri, Sarotherodon melanotheron, Sarotherodon mvogoi, Sarotherodon nigripinnis, Sarotherodon occidentalis, Sarotherodon steinbachi, Sarotherodon tournieri A Taxing Taxonomy Nile tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus, known in ancient times as “musht”

the latin aurum = gold
the Greek chromis = a perch like fish

Aquaculturally Important Species:

Oreochromis aureus
“Blue tilapia”

Oreochromis niloticus
“Nile tilapia”

Oreochromis mossambicus
“Mozambique tilapia” Geographic Distribution Natively tilapias are distributed
through out Africa.

Largest populations in the
North and East regions.
Significant populations
exist in the South.

The most well known
populations extend along the
Nile River and into the Eastern Mediterranean. Only limited by their relatively warm water temperature requirements

Temperature requirements are regularly and easily overcome in intensive aquaculture through:

Water temperature management and hybridization programs to create more cold tolerant breeds Currently tilapias are cultured on every continent except Antarctica Have become an invasive species resulting primarily from introductions through:

Pest management applications
(mosquitos, plants)

Due to their propensity to feed voraciously on a wide variety of food sources, and their sediment disturbing nesting behaviors they are the culprit for a large amount of habitat degradation and threaten indigenous ecosystems. Brazilian river of Paraiba do Sul
Oreochromis niloticus
Introduced as a food source for subsistence fishermen but begun to out compete native cichlids occupying a similar niche in the ecosystem.

Tilapia implicated as the introducing vector of a parasitic tremetode that has caused sustained outbreaks of blindness in native cichlid species. California
Introduction vectors in California are unknown.

Established intentionally as control measures for invasive aquatic vegetation.

Established intentionally as control measures for invasive aquatic vegetation. Australia
Introduced for aquatic plant and insect control.

Have quickly spread across a large number of waterways, due to their ability to withstand brackish and salt waters to move between mouths of freshwater systems connected to the ocean. Have become established in:
Ecuador, Singapore, Galapagos Islands, many other similar tropical or sub-tropical places. Morphology One single morphotype cannot be easily identified.

Tilapia across all three genuses possess the ability to hybridize
with one another and produce viable offspring.

Three primary species and related hybrids dominate the field:

Oreochromis aureus “Blue tilapia”

Oreochromis niloticus “Nile tilapia”

Oreochromis mossambicus “Mozambique tilapia”

Oreochromis sp. “Red tilapia” • A joined and toothed pharyngeal bone with a special set of muscles
(Acts as a second mastication device & allows for more efficient food consumption )

• A protrusible mouth with thick lips

• A set of conical teeth set in their true jaw

• A body shape that has a high dorsal/ventral to lateral ratio

• A long, spined dorsal fin

• An interrupted lateral line

• The ability to tolerate relatively high levels of salinity Oreochromis niloticus “Nile tilapia”

Average 20 inches in length

Approximately 9 pounds in weight

Wild type are generally dark goldish / redish in color

Possess a series of dark rectangular vertical stripes

Yield a darker colored flesh

Hybridization is common, specific colorization varies greatly Oreochromis aureus “Blue tilapia”

Average 6 – 7 inches in length

Approximately 5 pounds in weight

Present vertical stripes along their body similar to Nile tilapia

Distinguished by a metallic blue patch on their face
(more pronounced in the males)

The most cold tolerant of all tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus “Mozambique tilapia”

The leanest and least advantageous

A slow grower, approximately 14 inches long

Weigh approximately 2.5 pounds

Chartreuse coloration, less pronounced banding patterns, and light colored flesh Oreochromis aureus sp. “Red tilapia”
(Florida, Taiwanese, Israeli, etc.)

The most common and most profitable of the hybrid tilapia

Originally developed in Taiwan in the 1960’s
(mutant O. mossambicus X WT O. niloticus)

Similar morphotypes have been produced from different combinations
(Florida, Israel, Jamaica and other places)

Identifiable by bright redish-orange coloration and light flesh
Command much higher, as much as double, market price "Rocky Mountain White”

Both hybrid morphotypes due to a combination of recessive alleles
resulting in a condition known as Leucism, which is similar to albinism,
but affects all pigments, not merely melanin. Economics Culture Systems Diseases Gender of fry can be controlled with:

Feed incorporated with 17α-methyltestosterone (MT) at 60mg/kg of feed
for 28 days after hatching yield 95%+ males in any given population

“All-male” populations may also be obtained through specific hybrids such as
Oreochromis urolepis hornorum x Orechromis mossambicus

After the fingerlings have reached a weight of 1oz
gonad development is complete

Difficult sexing may be aided by the
topical application of a drop of fish-safe dye Life Cycle Females are sexually mature in as little as five months

Form temporary pair bonds

Build nests, approximately twice the length of the breeding male
(in either rocks or disturbance of the substrate)

Will spawn up to 2000 eggs

Once fertilized the females then take the eggs up into their mouths

Carry them for 12 to 18 days before releasing fully hatched fry Brooding females identified by dark markings on the forehead, operculum, chin and eye

Young fry will stay near their mother and retreat into her mouth

Oreochromis tilapias may breed for as long as five months out of the year

Males may breed with several females

Females may breed several times per season

Any of the three genuses will breed with one another and hybridize readily Diet

Juvenile fish are omnivorous and feed on insect larvae, copepods, and hydra

Adults feed almost entirely to phytoplankton and are useful for plant control

Adults retain their omnivorous characteristics and will consume almost any food source if there is a shortage of phytoplankton

Both juveniles and adults acclimate to pelleted feed readily Oreochromis tilapias thrive in almost any environment

O. aureus have a very high tolerance for brackish water

O. mossambicus withstand temperatures below 50° F and above 100° F

Oreochromis breed successfully in such adverse conditions

Cultured all over the world in everything from:
Turbid farm ponds to High density floating cages
Simple concrete raceways to Intensive recirculating systems All can be mitigated through careful sex selection during stocking.

Can also be mitigated through polycultural pond practices.

Including a predatory species, such as Parachanna Obscura, or African Snakehead, in densities of 800-1000/ha have been shown to eliminate excessive tilapia fingerlings.

Similar results with Clarias gariepinus, African Sharptoothed Catfish, although at much higher stocking densities. Aggressive reproduction and nesting practices lead to:

Habitat degradation issues: Turbidity

Overpopulation issues: Degrade water quality, stresses the fish, negatively effects health, leading to diseases that can cause the loss of an entire population

Grading issues: Poor growth of adult fish as they compete with juveniles, poor harvesting as up to 23% of harvested biomass can become comprised of unmarketable fingerlings Oreochromis tilapias are known for their hardiness

Of primary concern are bacterial infections and protozoan parasites

Of secondary concern are opportunistic fungal infections Bacterial Conditions

Motile Aeromonas Septicaemia (MAS): Aeromonas hydrophila
Causes: Stress & poor water quality
Symptoms: Loss of equilibrium, lethargy, gasping, inflamed fins and skin, bulging eyes, opaque corneas, and swollen abdomens
Treated with: KMnO4, Antibiotics such as Terramycin
(requires permit in the USA, 2 week treatment and 3 week withdrawal)

Vibriosis: Vibrio anguillarum
Symptoms: Similar to MAS
Treated with: Antibiotics administered in feed

Columnaris: Flavobacterium columnare
Symptoms: Frayed fins, white or grey patches on the skin and fins, and pale lesions on the gills
Treated with: KMnO4 similarly to MAS or with CuSO4

Edwardsiellosis: Edwardsiella tarda
Symptoms: Limited external symptoms, produces swollen organs and blood in body cavity
Treated with: Antibiotics added to the feed

Streptococcosis: Streptococcus iniae & Enterococcus sp.
Symptoms: Lethargic, erratic swimming, darkening of the skin, hemorrhages in eyes, abdominal distension, and hemorrhaging in the operculum, mouth, anus and base of fins.
Treated with: Antibiotic Erythromycin feed
(requires permit in the USA, 2 week treatment and 3 week withdrawal)

Fungal Infections

Saprolegniosis: Saprolegnia parasitica.
Symptoms: Lethargic swimming, white, grey or brown patches that resemble cotton which eventually lead to open lesions in the skin
Treated with: KMnO4 or CuSO4 or with formalin

Protozoan Parasites

Ciliates and monogenetic trematodes: Ichthyophthirius multifiliis, Trichodina, Dactylogyrus sp, & Gyrodactylus sp
Symptoms: Spots occur on gills or skin
Treated with: KMnO4, CuSO4, formalin or with H2O2 dips

Copepods and hirudidae leaches are rare, but can occur and are treated in the same fashion as parasites

Finally, dinoflagellates occasionally occur in brackish water systems with salinities of 10-15 ppt, and are treated with H2O2 dips Enormous potential for both increased production and economic growth in the USA
In 2010 the United States produced 9,979 tons of tilapia for domestic consumption, valued at $52,988,500
Still imported over $840,000,000 worth of tilapia
$592,000,000 of that came in the form of frozen tilapia from China
$110,801,000 came in the form of fresh filets from Ecuador and Honduras
Countries like Costa Rica and Indonesia also exported tens of millions of dollars of tilapia to the United States.
In 2010 the United States imported approximately 214,000 tons worth of tilapia University of Florida five year
business model analysis:

Proposed a small six acre outdoor pond based facility

Initial investment of

Estimated annual operating expenses of
(mostly feed and labor)

A positive annual average net profit of

A 2000 study suggested that given advances in species breeding and technology should render southern
US states competitive with South American
producers of fresh tilapia fillets. However all economic predictions of domestic production to rival the frozen tilapia production from China have proven to be unsuccessful without some sort of market protection on a federal level.

Majority of US production is focused on live, fresh product

Has yet to significantly expand into the prepared / filleted product markets

With aggressive pricing, quality and availability may mark a reduction in the demand for frozen imported product
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