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British Colonisation of Australia in 1788 - Year 9 History Assignment

Causes and effects

Anni+Bella The Great

on 28 April 2011

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Transcript of British Colonisation of Australia in 1788 - Year 9 History Assignment

British Colonisation of Australia in 1788 Causes Effects Social Political Economical Political Social Economic As the British settled inland, the Aborigines began to lose everything; hunting ground, watering holes, etc. Aborigines suffered from the effects of alchohol and many were injured or killed fighting against the British. According to Captain James Cook, as recorded in the Journal of the First Voyage, “The Eastern side is not that barren and miserable Counrty that Dampier and others have described the Western side to be... In this Extensive Country it can never be doubted but what most sorts of Grain, Fruits, Roots etc. of every kind would flourish here were they one brought hither planted and cultivated...”His words imply that Australia was good for planting and cultivating grains, roots, fruits and more, which is one reason that the British may have been intrested in colonising Australia. British Causes Effects Political Economic Social Social Political Economic According to Captain Cooks Journal of the First Voyage: “The Eastern side is not that barren and miserable Counrty that Dampier and others have described the Western side to be... In this Extensive Country it can never be doubted but what most sorts of Grain, Fruits, Roots etc. of every kind would flourish here were they one brought hither planted and cultivated...” This suggest that Great Britain believed Australia would be good to plant and cultivate a numerous amount of grains, plants and roots, this fact also suggests that Australia was fit for colonisation. As the world was largley unexplored, Great Britain wanted to be the first to discover and colonise a lot of it, such as Australia. If Great Britain colonised Australia it would make them a much more powerful, stronger Empire. Colonisation year 9 Hisory Assignment Isabella Miles and Annelise Cron Great Britain wanted to trade with the countries close to Australia. As stated in the Lord Sydney Document of the First Fleet, in 1788: “... considerable advantage will arise from the cultivation of the new Zealand hemp or flax-plant... most of the Asiatic production may also without doubt be cultivated in the new settlement...” this shows that Great Britain was keen to trade with the countries close to Australia. According to a letter from Sir Joseph Banks to a House of Commons Committee from 1779; “...the country was well supplied with water; there was abundance of timber and fuel, sufficient fro any number of buildings which might be necessary... if the people formed among themselves a Civil Government, they would certainly increase and find occasion for many European Commodities; and it was not doubted, that a tract of land such as New Holland, which was larger than the whole of Europe, would furnish matter of advantageous return.” This letters clearly states that Great Britain believed Australia was perfect for colonising. Great Britain believed Australia not only would be good for importing foods to cultivate and grow, but also animals. According to a letter from Sir Joseph Banks to a House of Commons Committee from 1779; “...he did not doubt that our Oxen and sheep if carried their, would thrive and increase... The grass was long and luxuriant, and there were some eatable vegetables, particularly a sort of wild spinage; the country was well supplied with water...” this shows that Australia was thought to be equiped for farming animals and that Great Britain planned to transport sheep and Oxen to Australia for farming. At the time the authorities wanted to cultivate and plant roots, grains and fruits and they also wanted to get rid of all the convicts, so they came up with an idea that effectively solved both problems. They would send the convicts to Australia where they would cultivate and grow food for Britain during their sentence. Britain had an urgent need to find space for the nations prisoners as crime was becoming a serious problem. There was a large lower class that had no financial assistance from the government, there was no organised police force and cities such as London were fast becoming overcrowded. Imprisonment was also used for punishing people who were in debt and would pay their bills, which was also a growing issue at the time. The authorities were afraid of the growing lawlessness in the cities so they implied harsher laws and penalties for those who committed crimes. This only made the issue worse as more people were penalised for stealing items such as a loaf of bread to feed their starving family.
According to Pitt, in his Government’s plan for Botany Bay Settlement’ (1786) “New South Wales... seems particularly adapted to answer the view of government with respect to providing a remedy for the evils likely to result from the... numerous increase in felons in this country”
At the opening of parliament 1787, King George the 3rd stated in a speech that: "a plan has been formed for transporting a number of convicts, in order to remove the inconvenience which arose from the crowded state of the gaols in different parts of the kingdom."
This letter from Lord Sydney to the Lords Commissioners of the Treasury further more confirms the fact that Great Britain wished to send the convict to Australia due to overcrowding. the letter reads: "the several gaols and places for the confident of felons in this kingdom being in so crowded a state...infectious distemper which may hourly be expected to break out amongst them... measures should immediately be pursued... convicts as are under sentence or order of transportation. His Majesty has thought... Botany Bay as a place to answer the above purposes."
As the settlers moved inland, the Aboriginals began to lose their hunting grounds and watering holes. The Aboriginals suffered from diseases that the British brought with them. They suffered from the effects of alcohol and many were killed or injured from fighting with the British. The British government was concerned by the violence towards the Aboriginals, but they had to deal with the conflicting pressures from the settlers. British law stated that the Aboriginals and the settlers had equal rights and responsibilities. That was the theory, but in reality it did not occur. The British used to capture Aboriginals, to intimidate them and scare them away. The first Aboriginal was captured in 1788. His name was Arbanoo and he was described as, ‘About thirty years old, not tall but robustly made.’ The settlers also described Arbanoo as being excessively agitated. Even though the Aboriginals had lived in Australia for over 40,000 years, the white settlers thought that the land was not being used. They had settled the land believing it to be terra nullius . Terra nullius is Latin for ‘no-mans land’, or ‘land belonging to no one’. Australia. of year 9 history assignment In 1788 when the First Fleet arrived in Australia, it was inhabited by an estimated 300,000 Aboriginals. In actual fact, the British did not wish to harm the Aboriginals. Governor Phillip began the penal settlement with the intentions of, “reconciling the Aboriginals to live among us, and to teach them the advantages they will reap from cultivating the land”. However, the British assumed that their ways were far superior to those of the Aboriginals and they deserved to have their country taken over. This resulted in many fights between the two groups. Aboriginals resisted the settlers, sometimes so well that farming and grazing ventures had to be abandoned. The settlers retaliated with their weapons, sometime wiping out whole groups of Aboriginals. They justified their violence with the argument that “these savages needed to be taught a lesson to ensure for future peace”. The Aboriginals believed that land was not a commodity for exchange. The British believed the land could be bought and sold and could be taken to be exploited by productive agriculture. They believed those who carry this out have some kind of “moral right” to the land. The British believed they could take the land from the Aboriginals and use it for their own purposes. As said by George Rose, Under-Secretary of the Treasury in 1786: "...the ships that convey them to the said place can have a freight of Tea home from China." this is evidence that Great Britain believed colonising Australia would help to establish different trade routes and expand their trade. CAPTAIN COOK SIR JOSEPH BANKS Great britain wanted to "beat" France to Australia and colonise it first as it was a sort of race. Historic evidence shows that the British beat the French to Australia by only a week. PITT LORD SYDNEY KING GEORGE THE THIRD The settlers delivered poisoned flour to the Aboriginals and introduced diseases, such as measles, chicken pox, influenza and the worst disease of all, smallpox. These diseases had dramatic effects on the Aboriginals, as they did not have the immunity to the viruses that were common to the Europeans. Smallpox wiped out entire tribes. Governor Phillip We hope you enjoyed our presentation!
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