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Through the Lens: Film Making
Transcript of Through the Lens: Film Making
What is Film?
Issues with Film
3. Cultural Racism
4. Hollywood Adoration
5. Originality and "Freshness"
Following the Footsteps
During the immediate post-war years, the film industry was also threatened by television. The increasing popularity of the new medium caused the bankruptcy and closing of a number of theaters, especially the small ones.
First movies set in the PH: "Escenas Calejeras (Street Scenes)", "Fiesta de Quiapo (Quiapo Festival)" and "Panorama de Manila (Manila Scenes)"
First moviehouses built in Manila: The Empire Theater, owned by Albert Yearsley, and the Anda Theater, owned by Goullete and Teaque.
First Philippine movies with narratives: “La Vida de Jose Rizal (The Life of Jose Rizal)” and “El Fusilamiento de Dr. Jose Rizal (The shooting of Dr. Jose Rizal)”
First non-historical film was produced: “Nena la Boxeadora (Nena the Boxer)” by Edward Gross.
Martial Law era marked the rise of the Second Golden Age of Philippine Cinema, the renaissance of Philippine experimental and independent cinema.
Lino Brocka, Ishmael Bernal, Marilou Diaz-Abaya, and Mike de Leon
Imee Marcos established the Experimental Cinema of the Philippines
“Oro, Plata, Mata (Gold Silver Death)” and “Scorpio Nights” by Peque Gallaga, Ishmael Bernal's “Himala (Miracle)” and Abbo de la Cruz' “Misteryo sa Tuwa (Joyful Mystery)”
Kidlat Tahimik's independent film “Mababangong Bangungot (Perfumed Nightmare)” won the International Critic's Prize in the Berlin Film Festival.
Independent film: Nick de Ocampo and Raymond Red
The Birth of the Moving Picture
With the development of celluloid film for still photography, it became possible to directly capture objects in motion in real time. With the moving picture, it is formed with a celluloid strip containing a sequence of images. These images with incremental movements from each other are shown in succession onto a screen; thus, seeing the still images as moving images.
The Silent Era
For the first thirty years of film history, movies were more or less silent, although they were usually accompanied by musicians and sometimes sound effects, and with dialogue and narration presented in the so-called "intertitles".
After a while, the development of a motion picture projector to shine light through the processed and printed film and magnify these "moving picture shows" onto a screen for an entire audience became the norm.
1878: British photographer
takes the first successful photographs of motion, showing how people and animals move.
Thomas Edison and W.K. Dickson
develop the Kinetoscope, a peep-show device in which film is moved past a light.
During the 1900's, the word "art" was mentioned more and more in connection with films.
The Arrival of Sound
1920's: These sound films were initially distinguished by calling them "talking pictures," or "talkies." The industry impact of sound made a remarkable swift. By the end of 1929, Hollywood was almost all-talkie, with several competing sound systems - which would soon be standardized.
1906: The first animated cartoon is produced.
1908: Nine leading film producers set up the
Motion Pictures Patents Company
1915: William Fox founded the
Fox Film Corporation
is formed out of the merger of Metro Pictures, Goldwyn Pictures, and the Louis B. Mayer Company.
1927: Warner Bros.'s
The Jazz Singer
, presents the movie's first spoken words: "Wait a minute, wait a minute, you ain't heard nothin' yet."
1929: The Development of the
, a set of guidelines that describes what is acceptable in movies.
Sound films emphasized and benefited different genres more than silents did. During this time, the musical film was also born.
However, in the Philippines, this decade fulfilled the so-called "Golden Age of Philippine Cinema." During the 1950's, Many Filipino films were internationally-acclaimed and reaping awards in the international scene.
Foreign Films, Black-and-white vs. Color, Self-Expression and Propaganda
During the 1960's, the studio system in Hollywood declined because many films were now being made on location in other countries, or using studio facilities abroad.
The growth in independent producers and production companies and the increase in the power of individual actors also contributed to the decline of traditional Hollywood studio production. There was also an increasing awareness of foreign language cinema.
The next major step in the development of cinema was the introduction of color. While the addition of sound quickly eclipsed silent film and theater musicians, color was then adopted more gradually.
The 'New Hollywood' and
The rise of film school educated independent filmmakers became a significant part of the changes the medium experienced in the latter half of the 20th century.
1968: The film industry announced a rating system: "G" for general audiences; "M" for mature audiences; "R," no one under 16 admitted without an adult guardian; and "X," no one under 16 admitted.
'Post-classical cinema' was also a term used to describe the changing methods of storytelling of the "New Hollywood" producers: story chronology could be scrambled, storylines could already feature unsettling "twist endings," etc.
Some filmmakers increasingly depicted explicit sexual content and showed gunfight and battle scenes that included graphic images of bloody deaths. Moreover, more pornographic theatres, euphemistically called "adult cinemas," were established.
The 1980's: Sequels, Blockbusters and Videotape
The 1990's: New Special Effects, Independent Films, VCDs and DVDs
The 2000's: Documentary, Epic, Horror, Fantasy, Adaptations, Animations, Digital Filmmaking and 3D
Movies about Japanese-Filipino friendship: Gerardo de Leon - "The Dawn of Freedom.” and “Tatlong Maria (Three Marias)”
WWII: “Garrison 13” (1946), “Dugo ng Bayan (The Country's Blood)” (1946) and "Guerilyera (Female Guerilla)" (1946).
Director Julian Mananansala (The Father of Nationalistic Film) : the first Filipino to establish the first Filipino Movie Studio - Malayan. His initial production entitled "Patria Amore" was a financial as well as artistic sucess.
Jose Nepomuceno (The Father of Philippine Film) produced “Dalagang Bukid (Farm Girl),” which was based on a musical by Hermogenes Ilagan and Leon Ignacio.
First Filipino film to be synchronized with phonograph records: "Collegian Love" by Carlos Vander Tolosa
First talkie made in the Philippines: “Ang Aswang (The Witch)” by George Musser
First studio modeled after Hollywood studioes: Filippine Films, set up by Eddie Tait and George Harris
Soon came Sampaguita Pictures (1937); Excelsior Pictures (1938); LVN (1939) and X-Otic Films (1939), renamed into Movietec after World War II (WWII).
First Golden Age of Philippine Cinema: The “Big Three” and Lebran churned out an estimated total of 350 films a year only shown in two theaters, namely Dalisay and Life theaters in Manila.
LVN Pictures: comedies and swordplay costume movies, Sampaguita: komiks adaptations and high-gloss, glamorous pictures, Premiere: action and crime films.
LVN produced “Anak Dalita” (1956), “Badjao” (1957) and “Biyaya ng Lupa” (1959), while Sampaguita Pictures made “Maalaala Mo Kaya” (1954). Premiere Productions made “Sawa sa Lumang Simboryo” (1952), “Salabusab” (1954) and “Huwag Mo Akong Limutin” (1960).
First film to be shown in the Cannes Film Festival: “Genghis Khan” by Manuel Conde
“Anak Dalita” won Golden Harvest Award (Best Picture) of the prestigious Asia-Pacific Film Festival.
First local award-giving bodies were formed: The Maria Clara Awards was set up by the Manila Times Publishing Co., followed by the Filipino Academy of Movie Arts and Sciences (FAMAS)
The “Big Three” closed one by one and were replaced by smaller studios.
Classics were replaced by “love team” romantic musicals and comedies. Action films also became more violent and realistic.
Fernando “Da King” Poe, Jr., Joseph “Erap” Estrada and Amalia Fuentes
Movies gave less emphasis to the narrative and more to action sequences and melodramatic crying scenes.
Rise of “bomba” movie, which ranged from softcore erotica to hardcore pornography in the early seventies
1990's: President Fidel Ramos created the Film Development Board, tasked with providing tax incentives to good films and encouraging the export of local films abroad.
2000 to present: Romantic comedies have comprised majority of mainstream releases, independent filmmakers spur a renewed interest in Philippine movies with mostly digital films.
A film, also called a movie or motion picture, is a series of still images which, when shown on a screen, creates the illusion of moving images.
Films are cultural artifacts created by specific cultures, which reflect those cultures, and, in turn, affect them. The visual elements of cinema give motion pictures a universal power of communication.
YES TO FILM!
NO TO FILM!
Stir our Imagination
Showcase of World’s Art and Culture
Films Educate Us
Employment and Revenue
Made for Profit
Establish False Notions
Meagre or No Respect for Law and order
Means to Propaganda
Addiction to Movies
Popularity of Unideal Role Models
Local film industry dying, but indie films on the rise. The Filipino film industry is in need of revitalization, with the number of locally made films having plunged by nearly half, to an average of 73 a year.
Momentous developments in the PH independent cinema. For now, what we can hold on to is the vast collection of impressive Filipino independent films and the remarkable talent of Filipino independent filmmakers.