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science

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by

Emily Riley

on 18 May 2015

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Transcript of science

part one
Astronomy
Astronomy is the study of objects in the sky ex: stars, planets, moons, and the galaxy.
eLlipse
An ellipse is the shape of Earths orbit around the sun
eClipse
Lunar
Solar
When the moon goes through Earth`s shadow during a full moon
When Earth goes through the moon`s shadow during a new moon.
Moon Phases
(Lunar Cycle)
The period of time it takes for the moon to revolve around Earth.
Tides
When the moon goes by the water it pulls it up from gravity and when it moves away it goes back down.
Shadows
When an object blocks light
Seasons
Seasons are caused by the revolve of Earth around the sun.
waxing crescent
1st quarter
waxing gibbous
full moon waning gibbous
3rd quarter
waning crescent
new moon
Direct Rays-Earth is tilted toward the sun, the nothern hemisphere facing the sun and getting the sunlight for summer
Indirect Rays- Earth is tilted away from the sun,
the northern hemisphere is facing away from the sun and is not getting much sunlight, winter.
West
East
11am
6am
12pm/noon
2pm
6pm
fourth grade science!
by Emily R.
sunrises
sunsets
Characteristics of...
SUN-made of a hot ball of hydrogen gas, brightest object in the sky,and very,very hot.
Earth-atmosphere of gasses, water on surface, weathering and erosion, has seasons, rotates and revolves at different rates.
Moon- rotates and revolves at same rate,sun
and moon have no atmosphere,weathering,
3.4 days
3.4 days
3.4 days
3.4 days
3.4 days
3.4 days
3.4 days
3.4 days
high tides
low tides
tidal pools
they are created by water that fills low tides on the beach or shoreline.
When the moon starts moving away from the sea, which gets smaller sea level.
When the moon is above the sea and the sea level rises.
erosion or seasons.
Mass and Weight
mass-the amount of matter in an object
MASS
WEIGHT
weight-
PART 2
MATTER
the measuerment of the force of gravity pulling on an object.
DISSOLVE
dissolve-to make a solution of,ex:salt in water
Temperature
temperature-the measure of warmth or coldness of an object.
Water boils at 100 degrees Celsius
Water freezes at 0 degrees Celsius
Freezing
Boiling
Melting
Mixtures
Solutions
Solutions-groups of molecules that are mixed and evenly distributed in a system.
Physical Properties
Physical Properties-a property that can be observed, measured, or changed without changing what the object is made of.
Change The State In Matter
Change State In Matter- it contains solids, liquids, and gasses.Its involved with giving heat or taking away heat to change the shape of the types of matter (solid, liquid, and gasses.
later
sun
solid
liquid
gas
Condensation
dew on grass
water on the outside of a lemonade
water on outside of a shower
Also part of the water cycle
condensation
100 degrees celsius
0 degrees celsius
0 degrees celsius
Tools used to separate mixtures
mixtures-2 or more substances mixed, and can be easily separated.
bigger than a tennis ball
SIZE...
size of dollar bill
scoop as big as a baseball
STATE OF
MATTER
solid
solid until it melts
solid until it melts
MAGNETISM...
not magnetic
not magnetic
not magnetic
COLOR...
black and white
brown
pink
if you add heat to ice cream then it will melt into a liquid.
if you put melted ice cream in a cold
freezer, it will become solid again.
rough and not magnetic and
has a definite shape.
wet and not magnetic,
does not have a definite shape
the hot air inside the balloon has no shape.
Condensation-the process of changing a liquid into a gas.
earth is rotating and revolving at the same time on the orbit (the shape of the orbit is a circle).
ellipse
solar moon
second!
lunar moon last!
part 3
energy!

energy is the ability to
cause change
energy article
In Nevada, crescent dunes solar power plant is the worlds leading solar thermal energy storage.
Solar Reserve is the company that built this power plant.
The mirrors caused the sun`s rays to hit the tracking mirrors so they can store the sun`s
energy and provide light for Nevada.
Energy is stored in the molten salt power tower.
source: search for energy news article on ask.com
simple machine article
There were 2nd graders that participated at a junior 1st lego league.
They created simple machines out of legos that they used.
source: search for simple machine news article on ask.com
magnetic field- the space around a magnet where the force of the magnet acts.
vocabulary
velocity- speed in a certain direction
conductors and insulators of electricity and heat
circuits
A series circuit has only 1 path so if there are 2 light bulbs and 1 light is out, the other 1 will too because they are connected.
A parallel circuit has more than 1 path so if there are 2 light bulbs and 1 light is out the other will stay lit because they are not connected.
parallel circuit
series circuit
conductors and insulators of heat!
conductors and insulators of electricity!
Conductors of heat and electricity are similar because they both allow heat and electric current to pass through objects easily.
Insulators of heat and electricity do NOT allow heat and electric current to pass through easily.
Part 4
forces!

forces
gravity- a force that pulls objects toward
each other
friction- a force that keeps 2 objects from sliding
past each other easily.
magnetism- the pushing or pulling force
between the poles of magnets.
work!
work- the use of force to move an object through distance.
The amount of work done depends on both the forced used and the distance moved.
If you moved a wheel barrow up hill you would be doing more work than if you moved it down hill.
Gravity and machines
Gravity is a force that pulls one object
toward another object.
All types of matter are affected by gravity.
Simple machines are tools that help people do work.
Simple machines work when an input
force is applied to the machine.
Part 6
Earths resources
Nonrenewable resource!
Renewable resource!
Natural resource!
Resource found in nature
Resource that ounce it is used it
can NOT be reused or used again.
Resource that CAN BE reused.
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Fossils
Fossils often form in rocks when what`s left of a plant or animal that was trapped in the layers of sediments that form the rock.
Some fossils have only body parts like bones or teeth. Others have just markings like footprints.
soil
Part 5
weather-what the weather is going to be like in a certain area and point in time.
Water Cycle
a movement of water into the air and back into the surface again
evaporation-the proses of changing a liquid to a gas
condensation-the proses of changing a gas to a liquid
Basics
precipitation-the proses of which rain, snow, sleet, or hail falls from the sky
Clouds
Stratus
A grey-sheet
like layer of
clouds across the
sky that usually signal
longer lasting drizzling
rain or snow
cumulonimbus
fast rising clouds that signal heavy rain and even thunderstorms and tornadoes
cirrus
high level clouds that
are thin and wispy like
curls of hair, and are made
of ice crystals that signal fair
weather
cumulus
A puffy white cloud that is caused by rising warm air, and signals fair weather
atmosphere
The layer of air that surrounds the Earth
Air preasure
lower atmosphere is more dense
higher atmosphere is less dense
in the middle of atmospheres there is a bit of both
(more and less dense)
Air Masses
Huge bodies of air that can cover thousands of km.
They have the same properties
which are...moisture,humidity
and temp.
Fronts
Warm Cold
forms when a cold air
mass meets a cold air mass,
pushes its way in,
As warm air is pushed up it cools and form clouds,
thunderstorms may
occur,
temp. cools AFTER rainstorm
forms when a warm
air mass meets a cold
air mass,
warm air slides over
the colder, denser air,
clouds form miles ahead
of where front is
moving on ground,
percipitation may fall as
front comes and goes,
sky becomes clear,
temp. gets warmer
wind
replaces warm (uneven)
cool air sinks
moving air
meteorologist-a person who studies weather conditions



forecast-a prediction of weather conditions for future days
made of humus and weathered rock
Properties of soil are...

Water Absorption-affects the amount of water available
to plants and animals.
potting soil with more humus absorbs more water
dry packed clay sol blocks water. wet clay soil holds water too much, so plants cannot use it.
Color-the way soil looks.
color shows whether the soil has minerals
dark soil have the most decaying plant and animal matter,they will absorb more sunlight and warm up and lighter soils will reflect more sunlight
Texture-the way soil feels.
coarse soils are made of big grains and feel rough like sand
fine soils are made of dust and other powdery substances
Fertility- ability to support plant growth.
a mixture of humus, sand, and clay are best for plant growth
fertilizers make soil richer by adding decaying plant matter or minerals
weather map symbols
cold front
warm front
sunny
partly cloudy
thunder storms
high preasure
low preasure
rain
cloudy
snowy
used by scientists to collect weather data...
The three R`s
People should REDUCE the amount of waste like buying items with less packaging and composting organic garbage.

A person should REUSE objects and make items out of them instead of throwing them away.

People should RECYCLE things made of plastic, aluminum, paper, and glass. Instead of throwing them away.
trash and garbage
trash
meant to be thrown away, solid
waste.
Garbage
waste like food that can decompose, solid
waste
Soil conservation
A wise use of soil.
conservation is the wise use of natural
resources.
contour plowing is to plow and plant
around a hill or a place where water
can slide down to where all the plant could get water.
strip cropping is one or more crops are planted b/t
rows of other crops.
crop rotation is planting different crops in a field on a seasonal or yearly rotation helps replace
nutrients without using a lot of chemical fertilizer.

Slow Changes
weathering-causes rocks to be broken down into bits.
words to help remember are...
breaking down
pounding
wear away
erosion-the phase after weathering breaks down rocks, erosion takes it to another location.
words to help remember are...
tumbling
take away
to another location
scraping
deposition-after phase 2 (erosion) deposition carries and drops it.
words to help remember are...
drops
another location

wind
water
ice
plants
water
wind
glaciers
wind
stalactites (ceiling)
stalagmites

A sea arch is created by erosion, it is an oceans affect on land.
A sea cave is created by erosion and is an oceans affect on land.
A sea stack is formed by erosion too and also is an oceans affect on land.
Rapid changes
earthquakes
fires
floods
volcanoes

Landforms
Valley Mountain Plain canyon and
plateu

Air takes up space and HAS MASS!
cold front
warm front
weathering and
erosion

weathering
weathering
(glaciers scrape
against the mountain to create
a valley).
conservation
succession
reclamation
preservation
A wise and
careful use of
natural
resources.
Changes in an ecosystem.
After a forest fire
Repairing some damage done
to an ecosystem.
After a tornado.

Maintaining an area in its natural condition.
producers
consumers
decomposers
mushrooms and bacteria
monkeys
bears
dogs
sharks
lions
flowers
grass
trees
Plants that make their own food.
Organisms that eat other living things and do not make their own food.
Break down the tissues of dead organisms.
Photosynthesis
needs
carbon dioxide
water
sunlight
Plants produce oxygen
for the animals and humans.
A body part or behavior that helps organisms
meet their needs.
Vertebrates and Invertebrates
vertebrates - orginisms with backbones
invertebrates - orginisms that do NOT have backbones.
invertebrates
vertebrates
Part 7!
Ecosystems!
Full transcript