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Plant Cells

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Alexia Schpilberg

on 12 May 2015

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Transcript of Plant Cells

Plant Organelles
Chromatin is located in the nucleus, and it's made of DNA, RNA and proteins. When the cell divides it condenses and forms chromosomes.

Chromatin creates chromosomes which are the ones that carry the hereditary information, in form of genes.

What are cells and organelles?
Cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things.
Organelles are a part of a cell that has a specific function.
The nucleus is a round mass protected by a membrane called the Nuclear envelope that has holes called pores. It's filled by the chromatin and a little ball called the nucleolus. The nucleus is not allways in the middle of the cell but you wont see the nucleus near the edge because that might be dangerous.
The Nucleus is basically the cells brain because it controls and directs all of the cells activities.

The cell membrane is a fluid structure to let substances in and out of the cell. If harmful waste accidently slips into the cell and the membrane would be solid it wont be able to come out and that can cause serious trouble.
In a plant cell it protects the cell and it controls which substances penetrate and exit the cell.

Nucleolus is the small ball located in the nucleus.
The nucleolus create ribosomes and RNA. Ribosomes create proteins for the cell when they get out of the nucleus. The nucleolus is also the organizer of the chromosomes.
You might find them floating in the cytoplasm or attached to the endoplasmic reticulum.

Ribosomes are the protein builders of the cell. They are made inside the nucleolus and then they are sent outside of the nucleus to make proteins.

Ribosomes are essential for the life of cells because a cell without proteins wouldn't exist.
Golgi Body
It's located close to the rough endoplasmic reticulum and it's a mass with compartments called vesicles.
The Golgi body's job is to get simple molecules and combine them to form much more complex ones. Then, he packages them in vesicles where he stores them for later use or he sends them out of the cell in the excretory vesicles. Vesicles are the ones that float through the cell transporting molecules.
The vacuole has a form of little bubbles. There is only one large vacuole in the plant cell located near the nucleus.
Vacuoles are storage bubbles that store everything essential to the cell. In plant cells it's bigger than in animal cells because have to store a large quantity of water and food for the cell. The vacuole also needs to store waste products so the cell is free from contamination. As time passes the waste products break into little pieces and they cannot hurt the cell.

Endoplasmic Reticulum
Cell Wall
It looks like tubes that go from the nucleus to the membrane. There are two types of Endoplasmic Reticulum: the rough, and the smooth. They have the same function but different shapes. The rough ER has ribosomes attached to it that makes it bumpy.
The Endoplasmic Reticulum acts like the roads of the cell. Its function is to carry materials where they need to go. It manufactures, processes, and transports materials from one place to another.

They have a pill shaped size and they float freely through the cell. The fluid contained in the mitochondria is called matrix.
This organelle is responsible for the energy production, which is like the powerhouse of the cell. It's like a digestive system because it breaks down food to make energy. More active cells will need more mitochondria to keep up their energy.

The cytoplasm is a jelly that fills the inside of the cell. This jelly also gives the cell its shape and it's enclosed by the membrane.
It's job is to keep everything in place. He helps proteins, chromosomes, and organelles move around the cell.

Comparisons to a Mall
It's a layer located between the membrane and the outside of the cell. This wall is not impenetrable it has small holes called the plasmodesmata, where lots of molecules enter and exit the cell. There is also a problem with the holes. They make the cells loose a lot of water. So the plant drops. But when it recovers they return to their normal state.
The cell wall is typically found in the plant cells. Its function is to protect the the cell.
These are only found in plant cells. They're like satellite dishes. They are filled with chlorophyll which gives them their characteristic green color.
Chloroplasts are the food producers of the cell, they create sugar, oxygen, carbon dioxide, and water with the energy of the sun. This process is called photosynthesis. Chlorophyll is the responsible for the absorption of the light.

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