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Copy of Ethanol

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jirayu yuenyongsuwan

on 26 February 2014

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Transcript of Copy of Ethanol

Ethanol
What is ethanol?
Ethanol is an alcohol
It is an intoxicating agent
It's chemical formula is C2H5OH
HOW DO WE MAKE ETHANOL?
FERMENTATION
DISTILLATION
The alcohol made from this fermentation is ethanol and it is the alcohol used in alcoholic beverages.
Step 1
Carbohydrate is "mashed" with hot water to release starch.
Liquid heated to 55°C .
Treated with malt (catalyst)
Enzyme diastase converts starch into maltose
Step 2
The temperature is dropped to about 35°C.

Yeast is added.

Yeast contains the enzyme maltase which breaks up maltose into glucose & fructose.
Step 3
Another enzyme from the yeast, zymase, then converts glucose into ethanol and carbon dioxide.
Fermented mixture now contains ethanol, water and other organic compounds
Ethanol concentration is approximately 5-15%
At this concentration, the yeast is killed
To obtain the pure ethanol and at greater concentrations of ethanol fractional distillation is used.
USES OF ETHANOL
There are two major industrial methods in manufacturing ethanol.
HYDRATION OF ETHENE
Catalytic hydration of ethene
Ethene and steam are passed over a phosphoric acid catalyst
300 C & 60 atm
Used mainly in the industry as a solvent and manufacture of pharmaceutical products
FERMENTATION AND DISTILLATION
It is impossible to remove all of the water from the mixture and the maximum purity obtained is approximately 95% ethanol and 5%water.
Ethanol (b.p. 78.3 C) and water(100 C) form an azeotropic mixture with a min. boiling point (78.15 C).
In distillation, the most volatile liquid distills off first. In this case, it is the azeotropic mixture that is most volatile, thus no higher conc. can be obtained.
The end product is bioethanol.
AS A FUEL
Gasoline additive for motor vehicles.
Octane enhancer since octane rating is higher than average gasoline.
Burns more cleanly because it contains oxygen (more complete combustion)
BEVERAGES
Ethanol is often called ‘drinking alcohol’ or ‘pure alcohol’ as it is the prime ingredient in alcoholic beverages.
Ethanol is the intoxicating substance in alcohol.
AS A SOLVENT
Ethanol is low in toxicity and soluble in non-polar substances
It is used as a solvent in:
medical drugs (Laudanum)
paint
permanent markers
perfumes


AS A CLEANER/SANITIZER
Ethanol is used in antiseptic and some antibacterial soaps and wipes.
Ethanol is effective against viruses, fungi and most bacteria
But is ineffective against bacterial spores.
ฤAlcohol industry culminate in country
Provides employment opportunities and stable incomes
Significant source of public revenue to governments
the reduced dependence on imported oil
Since fermentation is one of the methods of making ethanol, opportunities are offered to source local agricultural products thereby benefiting rural farming communities
Why Choose Fermentation Ethanol Process ?
ALCOHOL AND THE ENVIRONMENT
Deforestation
Waste discarded into streams and rivers
Increased carbon dioxide pollution
By-products can be used as animal feed
Carbon dioxide can be collected and used for carbonating beer
POSITIVE
NEGATIVE

Jirayu Yuenyonsuwan 5401031621021
Peeradaphan Saisuwansiri 5401031621145
Suparat Sakulmak 5401031631191
Sivinee Petchakan 5401031621196
Wanasuk Budsaree 5401031631159

Thank you for your attention
Why it must be ethanol
Reducing dependence on petroleum fuels by distributing the fuel source.
Using a clean fuel that is environmentally friendly, reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, and other toxins in the fuel
fermentation
Synthetic
Currently, ethanol is mainly produced from the fermentation ethanol process. Ethanol derived from chemical synthesis has a very small amount about 5 percent of the amount of ethanol produced in the world
Synthetic ethanol produced from coal and ethylene, a raw material is non-renewable energy but Fermentation ethanol produced from various plants, such as plants with sugar, cassava, molasses, seeds, grains, etc.. which is renewable energy.
Fermentation
Synthetic
Reference
- Hydration of ethanol (Source;University of Sydney, Australia)
- Fermentation(Source;"Economic Feasibility of Ethanol Production from Sugar in the United States" (pdf). United States Department of Agriculture.)
- Distillation(Source;©2003 Kennesaw State University )
- Uses of ethanol(Source;Copyright © 2013 & Trademark by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved.)
- Economic impact of alcohol industry (Source;Room, R., Jernigan, D., Carlini-Marlatt, B., Gureje, O., Makela, K., Marshall, M. et al. (2002) Alcohol in Developing Societies:)
- Alcohol and environment (Source;©2005 ALCOHOLPOLICYMD.COM. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.)
SUNDANCE CHANNEL NETWORK SITESSundanceChannel.com posted by Sundance Channel
Hammerschlag, R. (2006). Ethanol: energy well spent. NRDC. Environmental Science and Technology.
Media Source: Arizona Daily Star
2007 Energy Future Coalition, All Rights Reserved
Thai Ethanol Manufaturing assosiation The Economic Feasibility of Operating an
Advanced Ethanol Production Facilityมin Georgia Prepared by: Mike Best, George Shumaker, John McKissick
Pub. Number: FR-05-09 Date: August 2005
• "Chemical Engineering Design, 4th Ed", By R. K. Sinnott, Elsevier Butterworth-Hienemann, NY, 2005, ISBN 0-7506-6538-6
• "Chemical Engineering Economics", By D. E. Garrett, Van Nostrand Reinhold, NY, 1989, ISBN 0-442-31801-4
• "Chemical Process Equipment - Selection and Design" by S. M. Walas, Butterworth-Heinemann, Boston, 1990, ISBN 0-409-90131-8
• "Conceptual Cost Estimating Manual", by John S. Page, Gulf Publishing, Houston, 1996, ISBN 0-88415-267-7
• "Costs for Hazardous Waste Incineration" by R. J. McCormick, etal., Noyes Pub, Park Ridge, NJ, 1985, ISBN 0-8155-1047-0
• "Estimating Costs of Air Pollution Control", by W. M. Vatavuk, Lewis Publishing, Chelsea, MI, 1990, ISBN 0-87371-142-4
• "Mine and Mill Equipment Costs" by Western Mine Engineering Inc, 1995, www.westernmine.com
• "Mining and Mineral Process Equipment Cost and Preliminary Capital Cost Estimations" by A. L. Mular, CIMM, 1982, ISBN 0-919086-02-0
• "Perry's Chemical Engineers' Handbook, 6th Ed.", by R. H. Perry & D. Green, McGraw-Hill, NY, 1984, ISBN 0-07-049479-7
• "Plant Design and Economics for Chemical Engineers" by M. S. Peters & K. D. Timmerhaus, McGraw-Hill, NY, 1991, ISBN 0-07-049613-7
• "Preliminary Chemical Engineering Plant Design, 2nd Ed", by W. D. Baasel, Van Norstrand Reinhold, NY, 1990, ISBN 0-442-23440-6
• "Process Plant Construction Estimating Standards", by Richardson Engineering Service, Mesa, AZ, 1995, (602) 497-2062
• "Shedding New Light on Titanium in CPI Construction" by J. S. Grauman& B. Willey, Chem. Eng. Aug 1998, p 106
• 1998 Granger Catalog
http://www.ktb.co.th/ktb/th/rates.aspx?cid=2%2FHYLaFQ3Eyd1%2BwtZ3%2FKHg%3D%3D
How could we guarantee ?
Theses are news from Thailand
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process flow diagram
Income Statement for the Advanced Ethanol Plant

Capital cost price sensitivity analysis
Cumulative cash flow diagram
The plant was assumed to run 24 hours a day, seven days a week, fifty weeks a year. At 100 percent efficiency for 10 years that plant would produce 90,000 gallons a day or 31.5 million gallons annually.
Equipment cost
i = 6.875% per year
Loan from :
Cumulative with interest
Cumulative without interest
Compared
Pay back period
Pay back period
Project Evaluation
Data: From university of Georgia in 2005
Chemical cost index 2005-2014 * factor(449/448=1.002232)
Data
Conclusion
1.Pay back period in 4 years.
2.High profit for annually.
3.Cheap feed stock.
4.High demand in the future because it can be renewable energy.
5.Government support so can guarantee the profit.
Deserve for clever one
Pay back period
Pay back period
ฉcost of ethanol
http://www.thaiethanol.com/
Land
FCI
WCI
pay back period without interest
pay back period with interest
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http://www.mhhe.com/engcs/chemical/peters/data/ce.html
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