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Abuel's AP Language and Composition 2010-11
Transcript of Abuel's AP Language and Composition 2010-11
What is Rhetoric?
The Art/Study of Persuasion
History of Discourse and the Nature of Language
Modes of Thinking/Writing
Figures, Devices, and Tropes
Facts and Opinions
What you need to bring with you:
Understanding of Organic Unity
Understanding of Figurative Language
Basic Grammar and Essay Writing Skills
A Positive Attitude
An Sit: Is it?
Quid Sit: What does X mean?
Quale Sit: To what extent is it true?
"Alyssa is the coolest person at school!"
Is Alyssa the coolest person at school?
What do you mean by "cool?"
How cool is she?
Past or Forensic Arguments [Judicial/Historical]
Present Arguements [Truth/Value/Good/Bad]
Future or Deliberative Arguments [Law/Decisions/Control]
Quan stole the cookie from the cookie jar.
Stealing is wrong!
Quan should go to jail!
""When I went to school..."
"Having taught rhetoric for six five years..."
"I totally saw the movie and let me tell you..."
...at least that's what I thought when I went through it..."
"As the President..."
"The diploma on my wall..."
"...and since I was voted MVP..."
"Having been on the honor roll..."
"That's 'Dr.' Welloh to you, not 'Mr. Welloh'"
"I have to be honest, I really don't know much about..."
"...and then after I saved the orphans..."
"Of course, we must not be too harsh on the opposition..."
"As my intelligent opponent has already stated..."
"...it really doesn't affect me, but I think we should..."
"You know, even though it would put more work on my plate, I really think you should..."
"Seriously though, it would benefit you to try and..."
"Since I can't take advantage of it, why don't you..."
"I was only doing for you..."
"We live in a world where materialism has..."
"Having studies the gorillas for some time, I have concluded..."
"And since enzymes break down at 42 degrees centigrate..."
"The difference between power, strength, and endurance is found in the fibres..."
Types of Evidence / Backing
Logical Fallacy Monster
The Sword of Essay Structures
Diviso into Thesis
Confirmatio x 2
Exordium or Narratio
Confirmatio x 3
Jane Schaffer's Pattern
Needs and Desires
Details and Slanting
"Wrinkles of experience lined the old homeless man's visage as he smilingly whispered wisdom disguised in riddles."
"Cracks and crevices scarred the decrepit bum's face as he maniacally uttered nonesense."
"Jennifer sets high standards."
"Jennifer expects the impossible."
"Mr. Abuel corrected our mistakes."
"Mr. Abuel pointed out our flaws."
"Adrianna works hard."
"Adrianna is an over-achiever."
Paragraphs or clauses are clustered by particular sense...
Top to Bottom
Bottom to Top
Inside to Outside
Outside to Inside
Left to Right
Right to Left
Biggest to Smallest
Smallest to Biggest
First this, then this, followed by this, etc. (or vice versa)
Note: causality is not neccessary to use this mode. It is merely order of events.
How you describe something reveals your hidden biases, values, morals, and beliefs.
The man spoke in the room.
Mr. Abuel spoke about Rhetoric in Rm 117.
The bad man uttered in the run-down room.
Mr. Abuel didactically ranted about Rhetoric in the classroom of 117, which was cluttered with old essays and English Books.
As close to facts as possible. Trying to be unbiased and bereft of slanting. Removal of all possible subjectivity/opinion.
Description filled with bias, slanting, and opinion.
Description that is vague, leaving much to the imagination. Terms such as big, large, good, bad, old, young. Leaves more room for the audience to fill with their own biases and wants.
Description that is more precise. Often includes exact numbers, measurements, lengthy descriptions that aim to leave less room for audience biases and assumptions.
Connotation: The feelings and ideas associated with a word. Not the definition. This is what causes words to slant.
Decorum: Using appropriate words to suit the subject and the occasion.
Arranging a description by what is most memorable or prominent to least memorable or prominent.
Timmy was about 5'10' and had a shock of red hair that stuck straight out of his head. He was all bones, which would jut out of his body at odd angles and cause pain to anyone that was unfortunate enough to run into him. He also smelled slightly of carrots, but on really hot days, he smelled like a rotting salad.
His feet are shaped like two large suction cups. His legs are metal and are segmented for mobility and are telescoping. Atop his two legs is a large cylinder with arms attached that serve as his body. Atop his body is a smaller cylinder that tapers to a dome with an antena on top.
I was born in Quezon City, Phillipines. When I was five, I moved to San Francisco, CA. When I was seven, I moved to Chicago, Il. so my mom could get her second masters degree. When I was 14, my mother got a job with ING Barrings so I had to move to Singapore. When I graduated High School, I moved back to Chicago, where I worked for a few years. I moved to Arizona to go to ASU. I then moved to Newport Beach to teach English in Costa Mesa.
So there's this guy raising his fist , looking all angry, and he's riding on this printer that is printing out a fish on paper. There's water everywhere and he has swords strapped to his back. Oh, and there's this poster in the background.
pleasing to the ear (sounds, not ideas)
unpleasant to the ear (sounds, not ideas)
"She cackled and chortled out her joke."
"She laughed while she said a funny tale."
"He danced and swayed upon the floor."
"He gyrated and freaked in the center of the club."
"It cracked apart the candy."
"It halved the mint."
Basics IV - Parallelism
Truth can only be found in the moment.
There are no eternal truths
Arguments should stem from the values of the audience
Logos is the most powerful tool
“...the duty of the same man both to declare what he should rightly and to refute what has been spoken falsely...”
You cannot convince everybody, just like a doctor cannot heal everybody.
See every means of persuasion available for the occasion
Rhetoric is a neutral tool that can be used for both good and evil
Always have a reason
Always have evidence
Find truth in the moment...
"...we must be able to employ persuasion, just as strict reasoning can be employed, on opposite sides of a question, not in order that we may in practice employ it in both ways (for we must not make people believe what is wrong), but in order that we may see clearly what the facts are, and that, if another man argues unfairly, we on our part may be able to confute him. No other of the arts draws opposite conclusions: dialectic and rhetoric alone do this. "
The best orator is the best human being
The orator must be knowledgable in many fields
Be flexible and adapt your rhetoric to any situation
"The orator by his words greatly magnifies and exaggerates the grievousness of such things as in everyday life are thought evils and troubles to be shunned, while he enlarges upon and beautifies by his eloquence whatever is commonly deemed delectable and worthy to be desired..."
Use your powers for good..
Appeals to Authority
Control the Audience
Which will you be?
Martin Luther King Jr.
Sen. Joseph McCarthy
Most Poets and Musicians
Offensive Tactic #2
Defensive Tactic #2
The Terrains of Argument
Defensive Tactic #1
Offensive Tactic #1
The Tense Shift - Use this to expose opponents proof/reasons for an argument or use this to retreat from a losing battle.
"...and though ambition itself is a vice, it is often the parent of virtues."
Use past and present to argue for the future
Speak Plain and to the Point
Every Rhetorical Act is Oppurtunity
Participate in the World...
Understanding of AMOS
Formalist Literary Studies
The mind is what sets up the conditions for action, rhetoric aims to affect the minds of others.
Two Primary Functions
Serve as Proof as an alternate to Evidence
Make something abstract more specific, clarify
Atypical Examples/Cherry Picking
False Anecdote/ Excessive Pathos
Examples and Evidence
Examples and Evidence
Examples of Mustaches
What's a "Mustache?"
Rachel studies hard
I once saw Rachel save a hobo from a burning building
If you asked Rachel for a kidney, she would give it to you
Rachel has an excellent GPA
Rachel is an awsome person!
Angel is an awsome person!
"Einstein once said..."
How something is said
from Arizona State
National Board Certification
Adolescent Language Arts
Kappa Delta Pi
4 Years AP Lit.
4 Years AP Lang.
4 Years Freshman Honors English
3 Years Senior English
1 Year Sophomore English
1 Year Junior English
2 Years Frehsman English
2 Years Freshman Seminar
1 Year Credit Recovery
2 Years Pre-School
Outside the Classroom:
3 Years NMFT Site Rep
1 Year Secondary Curriculum Facilitator: English
1 Year English Department Chair
2 Years BTSA Mentor
"Well my mom told me..."
This also establishes credibility by grabbing the ethos of another and taking it as your own. This can be used as a type of proof.
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Aristotle's Rhetorical Triangle
All of this can change depending on the occasion...
"Did you know that scurvy on historical sailing vessels was alleviated by eating oranges...now eat your oranges little Valerie (Valerie is three years old)."
"Trust me, I'm a doctor...now hand me that accordian!"
Searching for Similarities
Conclusion: Harry Potter is not that original!
Boss - Employee
King - Peasants
General - Soldier
Teacher - Student???
Husband - Wife???
This one time, she totally saved a bunch of orphans from a burning building.
She can speak dolphin.
She always obeys all traffic laws.
Looking for Differences
Basis: An idea that guides what similarities and differences are noted
Fast Food Restaurants...
Basis can be:
...can slant positively, negatively, or make ironic
...tone will usually match decorum
...can alter meaning of a word or clause
Beginning, Middle, End - Plot
Cause and Effect - Causality/Chronology
Character, Conflict, Setting
Theme, Moral - Argument
Example, Ethos, Proof
Ex. Costa Mesa High School is located in Orange County
Ex. Costa Mesa High School has a great location.
Blends both fact and opinion
Ex. Costa Mesa High School is fortunate to be located in Orange County
- taking an abstract concept and breaking it apart into sub-categories
ex. love - platonic love, romantic love, familial love
- taking a series of items and placing then into distinct categories
Taco Bell, Del Taco, Burger King, Jack in the Box, McDonalds, Chipotle, In-N-Out
Places I Eat: Chipotle, In-N-Out
Places I don't Eat: Taco Bell, Del Taco, Burger King, McDonalds, Jack in the Box
Burger Places: McDondalds, Burger King, In-N-Out
Mexican Inspired Places: Taco Bell, Del Taco, Chipotle
Mixed: Jack in the Box
X is A
X is not B
X is like Z
Ways to Define:
a) describe something so we can all understand its meaning
b) create a temporary or narrow definition for special usage
Spectrum of Abstraction
This is me and my wife.
Quezon City, Phillippines
Antipolo City, Phillippines
San Fransisco, CA
Newport Beach , CA
Tampines District, Singapore
I've been to every state except: New England States above New York, Texas, Alaska, Hawaii, Louisiana, The Carolina's, Washington State, and Oregon
Next Stop? - India
Friends and Family
My Dog, Dio
Phil and Tia
Things I Like:
Words, Words, Words
Antiquarian Book Stores
Things I Dislike:
Any temperature above 75 Degrees
Directive - How it is done (Future)
Used Book Stores
Informative - How it came to be (Past)
ex. Preheat the oven to 350 Degrees Then unwrap the burrito from the plastic wrap. Place Burrito in oven and keep in oven for 20 minutes. Remove from oven and let burrito stand for 3 minutes. Enjoy.
ex. First Elaine broke up with her boyfriend because she caught him cheating with her bestfriend. Then it just so happened that Eric moved from Torrace to our school. Evan then invited Elaine to party and it turned out that Eric was there to. Evan then asked Evan to let some of the guests in, and when he did, Elaine was the first person he saw, and they fell in love immediately.