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The Spread of Islam

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indonesian studies

on 10 September 2015

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Transcript of The Spread of Islam

The spread of Islam in Central and Eastern java
The spread of Islam in Indonesia
the spread of Islam in Malacca
The spread of Islam in Northern Sumatra
Islam was brought into Indonesia by traders from Gujarat, India during the thirteenth century.‪

By the end of the 16th century, Islam had surpassed Hinduism and Buddhism as the dominant religion of the peoples of Java and Sumatra.

Bali retained a Hindu-practising majority, while the eastern islands remained largely animist until the 17th and 18th centuries when Christianity became predominant in those areas.
Gujarat (marked in red) in India
The spread of Islam was initially driven by increasing trade links outside of the archipelago.

Traders and the royalty of major kingdoms were usually the first to convert to Islam.

Dominant kingdoms included Mataram in Central Java, and the sultanates of Ternate and Tidore in the Maluku Islands to the east.

By the end of the thirteenth century, Islam had been established in North Sumatra; by the fourteenth in northeast Malaya, Brunei, the southern Philippines and among some courtiers of East Java; and the fifteenth in Malacca and other areas of the Malay Peninsula.

Nevertheless, a clear turning point occurred when the Hindu Majapahit Empire in Java fell to the Islamised Sultanate of Demak.

In 1527, the Muslim ruler renamed newly conquered Sunda Kelapa as Jayakarta (meaning "precious victory") which was eventually contracted to Jakarta.
Location of Mataram Sultanate
Map of Maluku Islands
Malay peninsula
Founded around the beginning of the fifteenth century Sultan Parameswara, the great Malay trading state The Sultanate of Malacca founded by Sultan Parameswara, was, as the most important trading centre of the Southeast Asian archipelago, a center of foreign Muslims, and it thus appears a supporter of the spread of Islam.

Parameswara, himself is known to have converted to Islam, and taken the name Iskandar Shah after the arrival of the Hui-Chinese Admiral Zheng He.

From Malacca and elsewhere gravestones survive showing not only its spread in the Malay archipelago, but as the religion of a number of cultures and their rulers in the late fifteenth century.
Sultan Parameswara
The Malacca Sultanate
Zheng He (1371–1433 or 1435), formerly romanized as Cheng Ho, was a Hui court eunuch, mariner, explorer, diplomat, and fleet admiral during China's early Ming Dynasty.
Firmer evidence documenting continued cultural transitions comes from two late-fourteenth century gravestones from Minye Tujoh in North Sumatra, each with Islamic inscriptions but in Indian-type characters and the other Arabic.

Dating from the fourteenth century, tombstones in Brunei, Trengganu (northeast Malaysia) and East Java are evidence of Islam’s spread.

The Trengganu stone has a predominance of Sanskrit over Arabic words, suggesting the representation of the introduction of Islamic law.

According to the Ying-yai Sheng-lan: The overall survey of the ocean's shores' (1433) a written account by Zheng He's chronicler and translator Ma Huan: "the main states of the northern part of Sumatra were already Islamic Sultanates
Trengganu or Tringganu is a sultanate and constitutive state of federal Malaysia.
Sanskrit is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism
A page from Ming dynasty woodcut printed edition of Yingyai Shenglan by Ma Huan
In 1414, he visited the Malacca Sultanate, its ruler Iskandar Shah was Muslim and also his people, and they were very strict believers".

In Kampong Pande, the tombstone of Sultan Firman Syah, the grandson of Sultan Johan Syah, has an inscription stating that Banda Aceh was the capital of the Kingdom of Aceh Darussalam and that it was built on Friday, 1 Ramadhan (22 April 1205) by Sultan Johan Syah after he defeated the Hindu and Buddhist Kingdom of Indra Purba whose capital was Bandar Lamuri.
The establishment of further Islamic states in North Sumatra is documented by late fifteenth- and sixteenth-century graves including those of the first and second Sultans of Pedir; Muzaffar Syah, buried (1497) and Ma’ruf Syah, buried (1511).

Aceh was founded in the early sixteenth century and would later become the most powerful North Sumatran state and one of the most powerful in the whole Malay archipelago.

The Aceh Empire’s first sultan was Ali Mughayat Syah whose tombstone is dated (1530).
The book of Portuguese apothecary Tomé Pires that documents his observations of Java and Sumatra from his 1512 to 1515 visits, is considered one of the most important sources on the spread of Islam in Indonesia.

In 1520, Ali Mughayat Syah started military campaigns to dominate the northern part of Sumatra. He conquered Daya, and submitted the people to Islam.‪

Further conquests extended down the east coast, like Pidie and Pasai incorporating several pepper-producing and gold-producing regions.

The addition of such regions ultimately led to internal tensions within the Sultanate, as Aceh's strength was as a trading port, whose economic interests vary from those of producing ports.

At this time, according to Piers, most Sumatran kings were Muslim; from Aceh and south along the east coast to Palembang the rulers were Muslim, while south of Palembang and around the southern tip of Sumatra and up the west coast, most were not.
In other Sumatran kingdoms, such as Pasai and Minangkabau the rulers were Muslim although at that stage their subjects and people’s of neighbouring areas were not, however, it was reported that the religion was continually gaining new adherents.

After the arrival of the Portuguese colonials and the tensions that followed regarding control of the spice trade, the Acehnese Sultan Alauddin al-Kahar (1539–71) sent an embassy to the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent in 1564, requesting Ottoman support against the Portuguese Empire.

The Ottomans then dispatched their admiral Kurtoğlu Hızır Reis he set sail with a force of 22 ships carrying soldiers, military equipment and other supplies.

According to accounts written by the Portuguese Admiral Fernão Mendes Pinto, the Ottoman fleet that first arrived in Aceh consisted of a few Turks and largely of Muslims from the ports of the Indian Ocean.

Ali Mughayat Syah's grave in Banda Aceh
Minang is an ethnic group indigenous to the Minangkabau Highlands of West Sumatra, Indonesia.
Some of the coastal Muslim lords were converted Javanese, or Muslim
Chinese, Indians, Arabs,
who had settled and established their trading state on the coast.

This war between the Muslim-coast and Hindu-Buddhist interior also continued long after the fall of the Majapahit by the Demak Sultanate, and the animosity also continues long after both regions had adopted Islam.‪

Chinese Muslim,
Ma Huan
and envoy of Chinese Emperor Yongle,‪ visited the Java coast in 1416 and reported in his book,
Ying-yai Sheng-lan
: The overall survey of the ocean's shores' (1433), that there were only three types of people in Java: Muslims from the west, Chinese (some Muslim) and the heathen Javanese.‪

The Majapahit Empire was a vast archipelagic empire based on the island of Java (modern-day Indonesia) from 1293 to around 1500
Since the east Javan gravestones were those of Javanese Muslims fifty years before, Ma Huan’s report indicates that Islam may have indeed been adopted by Javanese courtiers before the coastal Javanese.

An early Muslim gravestone date AH 822 (AD 1419) has been found at Gresik an East Javanese port and marks the burial of
Maulana Malik Ibrahim.

Malik Ibrahim was, however, according to Javanese tradition one of the first nine apostles of Islam in Java (
the Wali Sanga
) although no documentary evidence exists for this tradition.

In the late fifteenth century, the powerful Majapahit Empire in Java was at its decline.

After had been defeated in several battles, the last Hindu kingdom in Java fell under the rising power of Islamised state Sultanate of Demak in 1520.
Location of Demak
Ma Huan was a Muslim voyager and translator who accompanied Admiral Zheng He on three of his seven expeditions to the Western Oceans.
Location of Gresik Regency, next to Surabaya in East Java.
Maulana Malik Ibrahim (died 7 April 1419), also known as Sunan Gresik, was the first of the Wali Songo, the nine men generally thought to have introduced Islam to Java
The Wali Sanga are revered saints of Islam in Indonesia, especially on the island of Java. Thus, the term is often translated as "9 saints".
The spread of Islam in Western Java
Pires' Suma Oriental
reports that Sundanese-speaking West Java was not Muslim in his day, and was indeed hostile to Islam.‪

A Muslim conquest of the area occurred later in the sixteenth century.

In the early sixteenth century the Central and East Java (home of the Javanese) were still claimed by the Hindu-Buddhist king living in the interior of East Java at
Daha (Kediri)

The north coast was, however, Muslim as far as Surabaya and were often at war with the interior.

Of these coastal Muslim lords, some were Javanese who had adopted Islam, and others were not originally Javanese but Muslim traders settling along established trading routes including Chinese, Indians, Arabs and Malays.
According to Pires, these settlers and their descendants so admired Javanese Hindu-Buddhist culture that they emulate its style and were thus themselves becoming Javanese.

In his study of the
Banten Sultanate
, Martin van Bruinessen focuses on the link between mystics and royalty, contrasting that Islamization process with the one which prevailed elsewhere in Java: "In the case of Banten, the indigenous sources associate the tarekats not with trade and traders but with
kings, magical power
political legitimation

He presents evidence that Sunan Gunungjati was initiated into the Kubra, Shattari, and Naqshbandi orders of sufism.
Tomé Pires (1465?–1524 or 1540) was a Portuguese apothecary from Lisbon who spent 1512 to 1515 in Malacca immediately after the Portuguese conquest, at a time when Europeans were only first arriving in South East Asia
Kediri (also known as Panjalu) was a Hindu Javanese Kingdom based in East Java from 1042 to around 1222. Despite the lack of archaeological remains, the age of Kediri saw much development in classical literature.
The Banten Sultanate was founded in the 16th century and centered in Banten, a port city on the northwest coast of Java. It is said to have been founded by Sunan Gunungjati, who had previously founded Cirebon.
Martin van Bruinessen is a Dutch anthropologist and author, who has published a number of publications on Kurdish, Indonesian, Turkish, Persian, Zazas subjects, and also on aspects of Islam as a whole.
is the term for a school or order of Sufism, or especially for the mystical teaching and spiritual practices of such an order with the aim of seeking ḥaqīqah "ultimate truth".

(Shaykh Abū al-Jannāb Ahmad ibn ‘Umar) was a 13th-century Persian Sufi from Khwarezmia, the founder of the Kubrawiyya or Kubraviyah Sufi order

are members of a Sufi mystical order (tariqah) that originated in Persia in the fifteenth century completed and codified in India. Later secondary branches were taken to Hejaz and Indonesia.

is a major Sunni spiritual order of Sufism
Sunan Gunungjati (1448–1568) was one of the Wali Songo, or Nine Apostles of Islam. He founded the Sultanate of Banten, as well as the Sultanate of Cirebon on the north coast of Java.
Sam Poo Kong
, also known as Gedung Batu Temple, is the oldest Chinese temple in Semarang, Central Java, Indonesia. Originally established by the Chinese Muslim explorer
Zheng He

Central Java

Ma Huan
Ying-yai Sheng-lan
Sam Poo Kong
Zheng He
Eastern java

Maulana Malik Ibrahim.
the Wali Sanga
Western Java

Pires’ Suma Oriental
Daha (Kediri)
Banten Sultanate
Full transcript