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The Roman Empire

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by

Frank McCormick

on 29 June 2016

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Transcript of The Roman Empire


Stabbed to death in the senate chamber by a number of senators led by Marcus Brutus and Gaius Cassius
Feared his power and influence
Caesar's Ascent
In Summation:
Economic Turmoil
Absolute ruler
Grants Roman citizenship to many people in the provinces
Expands the senate (patronage)
Creates jobs through the construction of new public buildings
Creates colonies for the landless
Increases soldiers pay
The First Triumvirate
Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus attempted to help Rome’s poor- they were both murdered

Growing divide between the rich and the poor.
Slaves formed 1/3 of the population.
Many former soldiers now made up the landless poor
The Republic begins to disintegrate as Roman generals recruit these former soldiers and promise them land in exchange for their service and obedience
Civil War
The Rule of Caesar and his fall
Octavian becomes unchallenged ruler of Rome
Title of Augustus- exalted one
A period of peace that lasted for 207 years- Pax Romana or “Roman Peace”
An empire of 3 million square miles, 60-80 million people, and 1 million people within Rome
Roman Empire flourished through able leaders, a strong government, paid civil servants, and secure frontiers
The Second Triumvirate
The Reforms of Gaius Marius
Reforms of Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus
The Pax Romana
Economic: higher taxes, shrinking silver/gold supplies, inflation
Military: Mercenaries and Loyalty
Diocletian splits the empire!
Constantine moves the capital to Byzantium... Which then becomes Constantinople... Which is now Istanbul...
Edict of Milan- Constantine approves!
The Collapse of the republic
The Rise and Fall of the Roman Empire
Smaller farmers were unable to compete with the large estates run by slaves
Many sold their land to the wealthy landowners and became homeless and jobless, working in the countryside as seasonal migrant laborers

Mosaic of Roman Slaves, Tunisia, 2 AD
Wealthy Romans lived on huge estates manned by thousands of slaves
Roman Estates (and Villas)
Some of these poor, former farmers headed to Rome where they joined the urban poor (1/4 of Rome’s population)
Gaius
Tiberius
Sections:
I. Economic Turmoil
II. Reforms of Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus
III. Reforms of Gaius Marius
What events led to the collapse of the Roman Republic?
Pompey
Crassus
Caesar
The Rise and fall of Caesar
Octavius: The First Augustus
The Julian Emperors
The Good Emperors
Government
Trade and Agriculture
Slavery
Religion
Society and culture
The Decline of the Roman Empire
Economic: higher taxes, shrinking silver/gold supplies, inflation
Military: Mercenaries and Loyalty
Diocletian splits the empire!
Constantine moves the capital to Byzantium... Which then becomes Constantinople... Which is now Istanbul...
Edict of Milan- Constantine approves!
Attempts at Reform
Emperor Constantine
The Western Empire Crumbles
Why did Rome Decline>
Legacy

The traditional view that the Germanic 'barbarians' invaded a decaying Roman Empire have been discredited to a degree
It is now believed that many Germanic peoples who had migrated south were integrated into the Roman Empire, and assisted in defense, and eventually, administration and outright rule
Not a unified people, rather a series of many free tribes that followed chosen or hereditary rulers
While Roman legions clashed with the Germanic people as they expanded further north, over time many Germanic peoples found solace within the empire, and migrated south and assimilated
Migration en masse occurred during the 5th century due to a combination of factors: Roman Empire began to lose military strength and political cohesion, and the Germanic peoples faced pressure due to over-population and invading Asian groups
Here come the Huns, and so follow the Germanic "barbarians"
Rome is sacked and plundered
Attila terrorizes the Latins and Greeks
The west crumbles, the Dark Ages begin...
The Byzantine Empire flourishes for 1,000 years and preserves Greco-Roman history!

Key Question:
Was Western Europe really 'invaded' and disrupted by Germanic barbarians or was it more of a migration into an already decaying Roman Empire?

Julius Caesar is elected consul in 59 B.C.
Caesar, Crassus, and Pompey dominate Rome as a triumvirate, a group of three rulers
Caesar serves one year as consul, then appoints himself as governor of Gaul (France)
Caesar uses his legions to conquer Gaul, his triumph and dedication to his men earn him great loyalty among his men and notoriety across the Republic
Pompey, now Caesar’s political rival, feared his ambitions and ordered Caesar to disband his legions and return home
In Summation:
What events led to the collapse of the Roman Republic?
In Summation:
What events led to the collapse of the Roman Republic?
In Summation:
What events led to the collapse of the Roman Republic?
In Summation:
What events led to the collapse of the Roman Republic?
Full transcript