Loading presentation...

Present Remotely

Send the link below via email or IM


Present to your audience

Start remote presentation

  • Invited audience members will follow you as you navigate and present
  • People invited to a presentation do not need a Prezi account
  • This link expires 10 minutes after you close the presentation
  • A maximum of 30 users can follow your presentation
  • Learn more about this feature in our knowledge base article

Do you really want to delete this prezi?

Neither you, nor the coeditors you shared it with will be able to recover it again.


Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Landscape, Nursery and Greenhouse Operation: Where to Begin?

ProGreen Expo Denver, CO Thursday, February 9 3:00 PM - 4:00 PM

Dan Staley

on 9 February 2017

Comments (0)

Please log in to add your comment.

Report abuse

Transcript of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Landscape, Nursery and Greenhouse Operation: Where to Begin?

History and Some Background
Aerial Assessments
Aircraft, Sensors, Systems
Pilot Services

Laws, Requirements, Privacy
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Landscape, Nursery and Greenhouse Operation: Where to Begin?
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Landscape, Nursery and Greenhouse Operation:
Where to Begin?
ProGreen Expo, Denver CO
January 18, 2017 2:15 - 3:15
Dan Staley
Analemma Resources, LLC
All presentations on Prezi.com (search 'Dan Staley')
survey, construction, volumetric. Use what you
have from TX, others, Wendy Booth.
Figure out how to fit nursery trade
maybe one here for aerial counts and
some other place for indoor flying? (several years
out for sure)
Dan Staley, Analemma Resources LLC
Objectives & Questions
Drones and History
Aircraft Types
Sensor Types
Sensor Types
Big Picture
Hype Cycle
Staley, D.C. 2016. Making a Business Decision for Drones: What you need to know.
Arborist News
. 25:5 pp. 22-25.

Staley, D.C. 2016. Drone Arboriculture: The business case for your operation?
Ontario Arborist.
October 2016 pp. 10-13.

Staley, D.C. 2016. Remote Sensing and Assessment of Urban Forests with Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. C
ity Trees.
53:1 pp 18-22.

Staley, D.C. 2016. Drones and Arboriculture: Legal requirements and private property rights.
Tree Care Industry Magazine
. 27:10 pp. 48-50.

Staley, D.C. 2016. Drone Arboriculture: Is it right for your operation?
Ontario Arborist.
June/July 2016 pp 14-19.

Staley, D.C. 2016. Drones and Tree Care: Right for your operation?
Tree Care Industry Magazine
. 27:7 pp 24-29.

Staley, D.C. 2016. How to Market to the Tree Care Industry and Landscape Industry.
sUAS News Special Supplement
(August 2016).

Staley, D.C. 2016. Drones and Tree Care Operations.
Tree Services Magazine
. 12:4 pp 18-23.

Staley, D.C. 2016. UVM and UAVs: A new way forward.
Transmission and Distribution World Magazine.
April 2016 pg. 17.

Staley, D.C. 2016. Drones and the future of Utility Vegetation Management.
Utility Arborist Newsline
. March-April 2016 pp. 31-32.

Staley, D.C. 2015. Drones & Tree Care: Who is using them, how, and why?
Tree Care Industry Magazine.
26:12 pp. 8-14.

Hammrich, T. and Staley, D. 2013. Use of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles in Arboriculture: Toward new heights. T
ree Care Industry
24:11 pp. 26-31.

UAS and Arboriculture
Staley, D.C. 2013. Urban Forests and Solar Power Generation - Partners in urban heat island mitigation.
International Journal of Low Carbon Technologies
8:3 9 pp.

Staley, D.C. 2009. Increasing Green Infrastructure in Compact Develop
ments: Strategies for providing ecologically beneficial greenery in modern urban built
environments. IN: Proceedings of The Second International Conference on Countermeasures to Urban Heat Islands (SICCUHI)
, Berkeley CA, USA.

Staley, D.C. 2014. Your Next Opportunity: Solar-friendly tree care.
Tree Care Industry Magazine
25:7 pp. 22-23.

Staley, D.C. 2014. Solar Rights and Tree Rights are Compatible.
Renewable, Alternative and Distributed Energy Resources Newsletter.
2:2 pp. 13-15. American Bar
Ass'n, Washington, D.C.

DuVivier, K.K. and Staley, D.C. 2013. Managing the Dark Side of Trees.
Solar Today
27:5 pp. 27-31.

Staley D.C. 2012. Solar-Smart Arboriculture in the New Energy Economy.
Arborist News
20:3 4 pp.

Arboriculture and Urban Heat Island, Rooftop Solar Power, Urban Design
Additional Resources
1. Help make a business decision on the use of drones
in your operation - landscape, outside nursery.
3. Have a good idea about what is happening with the
current and upcoming laws and privacy concerns.
Bass diffusion model modified by Staley
Norma Jeane Dougherty
Coincidence or ??
Capt. Ronald Reagan
Aircraft Types
Aircraft Types
Courtesy PrecisionHawk, Inc
Courtesy Bill Emison RMUASP
ff and
anding (VTOL)
Sensor Types
Sensor Types
By far the most common sensor
Standard on any decent aircraft
Photography, videography, inspections,
surveying/mapping (anything visual)
Modern UAV Development
Computing power
Thermal-InfraRed (IR)
Detects heat and emissions/reflectance in
the IR spectrum
Thermal differences allow detection of mammals,
heat in photovoltaic panels, inspection of buildings,
wind turbines
Turf stress detectable, some woody plants too
Detects light in several discrete wavelengths chosen
for a purpose
Most commonly used in agriculture, environmental,
some materials fields
Agriculture: Vegetation Indices (VIs) - NDVI
Needs third-party data processing and analysis
Collects all spectral bands in each pixel
Between specific wavelengths (400 - 1550 nm,
400-2350 nm, etc.)
Many uses - vegetation, mining, pollution,
Tremendous amount of data - third party needed
Still very expensive and specialty aircraft needed
2. Thorough overview on the current and near-future
capabilities of drones/Unmanned Aerial Systems.
Nikola Tesla drone patent, 1898
OQ-2 Radioplane, the first mass-produced U.S. UAV -
Photo: PFC David Conover
Operator Input
Almost everything today can be automated
Takeoff, landing, route planning, many smaller inputs
(take an image every 3 seconds, shutter speed,
return when battery is x%, circle object,
follow me)
Key Limitations
Batteries, batteries, batteries, batteries
Rotor-wing: ~23 minutes Fixed-wing: ~40-90 minutes
(Wind, weather)
Legal restrictions: airports, private property, cities with
their own laws (No Drone Zones)
(More later)
Technology is not a limitation
(Says everyone in the industry: bonkers
Anyone Can Fly With Practice
Visual Sensors
Current standard: 4K, 1080p, 60 frames per second (fps)
Still images ~3-10 mb, video ~500 kb/second
Thermal - InfraRed Sensors
Current standard: 320-640 pixels
Still images ~2 mb
Main uses:
Plant Health Care:
Plant water stress - turf, some woody
Some indications of tree cavities
Irrigation leaks in the field
Thermal - InfraRed Sensors
Current UAV standard (at 100 m/335 ft above
ground level (AGL):
Resolution ~4-5 cm (1.5 in) ground sample
distance (GSD)
Multispectral Sensors
Each sensor is "tuned" to receive only specific
wavelengths of light in a narrow "band"
Multispectral Sensors
Hyperspectral Sensors
Sensor collects all wavelengths of light between a set
range of wavelengths
Hyperspectral Sensors
Used to detect plant species, assess plant health,
Cost and data amounts limit current usage - will change
Flown with LiDAR for precise measurements and
detection (utility and pipeline corridors, cities)
LiDAR Sensors
Current LiDAR sends pulses of laser light (RADAR)
Solid State LiDAR in late development stage now for
autonomous cars and trucks
Used in transmission-distribution vegetation
management, pipelines, urban areas
Other Cool Stuff
Urban spray operations - bug drops
Courtesy Dan Drooger
CCI Atomics
Coming Soon
Telemetry for drone ID and Air Traffic Control
Technology to control drone "swarms"
Good object identification and collision avoidance
Legal Topics
Laws and Regulations
Laws and Regulations
Flying for income requires UAV pilot's license
FAA - 14 CFR Part 107 ("Part 107")
Practice under Part 101 (hobbyist)
Laws and Regulations
FAA has study guides, several free on the web
Test administered at participating FAA locations
$150 fee, ~60 questions on maps, airfield ops,
weather, airspace restrictions, procedures
No flying test (!)
Current pass rate ~87%
Several inexpensive test prep courses available
On-line bookstores have additional resources
Expect 8 - 15 hours of study time to pass
Current U.S. law: property ends at 83 ft.
Above Ground Level (AGL)
All operations should take concerns of property
owners into account
Laws and Regulations
Cities, counties, states may pass their own regs
All aircraft over .55 lbs must be registered
FAA regulates airspace
Cities, counties etc can limit where you take off
and land - No Drone Zone (parks!)
All operations should take concerns of property
owners into account
All operations should take concerns of property
owners into account
Legal Links:

FAA Civil Operations: https://www.faa.gov/uas/civil_operations/

Start with the basics: http://knowbeforeyoufly.org/

Excellent, deep privacy discussion if you are serious about this topic - Drones and Aerial Surveillance: http://www.gwlr.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/84-Geo.-Was.-L.-Rev.-354.pdf

Good outline of what you need to know about the Part 107 test prep:

Drone law blog answering lots of Part 107 test prep questions:

3DR study guides: https://3dr.com/faa/study-guides/

Example of not-for-free study guide: http://www.asa2fly.com/Prepware-Remote-Pilot-P3575.aspx
Laws and Regulations
FAA regulates airspace - key piece missing
Flight Beyond Visual Line of Sight (BVLOS)
BVLOS needed for agriculture, Utility Veg.
management, urban forest - scale flights
BVLOS possibly 2017, likely 2018 (all bets off)
Bids - Surveys
Several software companies exist that process
visual data into Digital Elevation Maps (DEMs)
Majors: Pix4D, Drone Deploy, Datamapper,
Quest UAV (package), Skycatch
Local data companies likely can do elevation and
surface maps as well
Bids - Surveys
Uses your drone's camera to make digital maps
of job site
Upload images to cloud, software stitches images
together, analyzes, returns images and maps
Subscription service - per month fee. "Data in a box"
service - standard outputs only
Bids - Surveys
Bids - Surveys
Digital Elevation Models (DEMs)
Bids - Surveys
Area, volume, height, plant health (which vegetation
indices depends on company), 3D, ortho., more
Getting Started
Part of your budget at the beginning is
buying training aircraft.
Crashing a $75.00 drone to learn how to fly
is much, much better than crashing a
$1000.00 drone to learn how to fly.
Drone Equipment Costs
I do not represent any manufacturer
These are costs for the leading manufacturers and models,
plus some others that get buzz
Shop hard before you buy. DJI lowered their prices the
same way, ~the same time for the past two years
Some older models on eBay or Craigslist are a good
alternative if you aren't 100% sure - technology is much
older, so be careful (especially optics!)
Take your time!
Starter Drones
Indoor flight
Get used to controller skills & aircraft
You will crash into lampshades and plants
Drone, extra batteries, propellers:
~$75 - 100.00
Intermediate Drones
Flight in wind
You must learn what to do when in
No substitute
You will crash land, find that tree
Drone, extra batteries, propellers:
~$100 - 250.00
Intermediate Drones
Working Drone (
) Equipment Costs
Everyone has different preferences
DJI Drones
Phantom 4, Phantom 3 (Advanced, Pro),
Most Recent Company Rankings
Typhoon H, Q500
X-Star series
Extra batteries,
, case, filters, extra parts, accessories
$1250 - 2000.00
Insurance (varies by area and carrier)
Safety vests with drone outline and company logo
(advertising budget)
Other Additional Expenses
Insurance by flight or annual policy
Nice brochure for privacy door-knocking, curious
Drone operations sign
Staff Training Time
(10 hours?)
Working Drone (
) Equipment Costs
Everyone has different preferences
DJI Drones
In my opinion, consider Craigslist first. eBay too hard to see fly, too many questionable drones that I saw.

Watch, see what is going on, take your time. Look for crash evidence, see if selling for upgrade. Get as many extra batteries, case, extra parts, accessories as you can. Take your time, when you understand the used drone market, go for it, quickly. FLY THE DRONE BEFORE YOU BUY
$650 - 1200.00
Sensor Prices
Thermal - InfraRed
Some visual on screen OK, some third-party
data analysis may be needed
~$1500 - 3500.00
Sensor only, not including data analysis
~$3000 - 6500.00
Their equipment and insurance
Probably connected to data analysis service
New network for leads
How many do you need for a guarantee of a flight?
New personalities to deal with
Likely faster to deal with ATC tower & permissions
in Class B - C airspace
Another sub to keep track of
My default is always that a pilot is a good idea, at
least for a while, as a backup, their connection
to data analysis firms
Tradeoff is different for everybody - are you the
personality type who wants to fly, or to avoid risk?
Hourly rate should be ~$125-150 for a good pilot for
visual work and no post-flight data processing
Thank You!
Technology is moving faster than bonkers
Technology is making drones much safer and
more feature-rich while maintaining or
lowering price
Technology makes drones easier to fly
Technology no reason to delay any more
Sensors are improving rapidly
Sensor prices are plummeting
In a few years, thermal IR and
multispectral will be common
U.S.A. finally has commercial drone laws
Next step: BVLOS
Law cannot keep up with technology
Check locals for 'No Drone Zones'
Privacy laws may be changed by drones
Courtesy and privacy are outside the law
Software platforms exist that allow you to
use your drone for bids, light surveying
Room 709
Outside (and inside soon)
Courtesy: Precisionhawk
Nursery Work
Plant counts are almost there
Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for Landscape, Nursery and Greenhouse Operation:
Where to Begin?
ProGreen Expo, Denver CO
January 18, 2017 2:15 - 3:15
Dan Staley
Analemma Resources, LLC
All presentations on Prezi.com (search 'Dan Staley')
Room 709
Nursery Work
Plant vigor is one of two choices today:
Nursery Work
How many times you fly - whether you buy or
hire to fly
3-5x a year? Hire for a couple years and learn
how to fly, then buy carefully
Weekly for irrigation leaks, water stress, inventory
probably best to buy
Everyone is different
Nursery Work
Software for field ops varies in availability
Visual sensors and software is there today
Social media, customer help, marketing helped
immediately, irrigation requires skill
"Cloud software in a box"
Local data analysis provider (from ag.) that can
work with you for custom solutions
Subscription service offering fixed range of
Greenhouse Operations
Limited options, but not for long
Outside visual assessments
Outside thermal sensors for heat loss
Greenhouse Operations
Near future (~2-4 years)
Indoor flights
Visual, multispectral
Object avoidance - wires, tubing, people
Spray (targeted foliar applications)
Years away from robots replacing jobs
(autonomous vehicles, warehouses)
Greenhouse Bottom Line
Indoor flights still several years away
Technology driven by warehouse robots
All sensor technology is on course to fly
miniature drones - swarms inside
Spray limited by weight - likely humans
Nursery Bottom Line
Early software for some operations is here
Still early
Shop well for software
Other operations not quite there yet
Good counts still being worked on
BVLOS will spur rapid deployment
Full transcript