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The Disappearing Spoon Project
Transcript of The Disappearing Spoon Project
Sparta was laying a siege on Athens
Spartans decided to gas the Athenians into surrendering using "the most advanced chemical technology of the time - smoke" (Kean 2010)
They crept to the Athenians lighting bundles of noxious wood, pitch, and sulfur expecting the Athenians to escape their homes as the smoke billowed throughout Athens.
This strategy was unsuccessful and the Athenians went on to win the war Elements of the Universe Trips to Antarctica Historical Toxic Chemicals Cadmium Gold Rush Congo Discoveries of Elements The First White Phosphorus Used By Israel Smoke Used By Sparta Lebanon in 2006
Gaza in 2009
The bombs would explode in the air, billowing smoke before the shells fall to the ground. The burning chemical particles can rain over can area that is about the size of a football field.
Severe respiratory problems Elements of Stars Newly Discovered Molecules In the Milky Way The stars heat themselves by fusing hydrogen to form helium which forms tremendous amounts of energy
The Big Bang Theory suggests that elements were ejected uniformly in all directions. However, it has been proven that most young stars contain hydrogen and helium while older stars are filled with other elements. A pair of prebiotic molecules were found in a giant cloud of gas that is about 25,000 light years away from the earth (near the center of the Milky Way Galaxy).
The chemicals found include a molecule that is thought to be a precursor to a key component of DNA and another that may have a role in the formation of the amino acid alanine.
Chemists believe that cyanomethanimine (one of the newly discovered molecules) produces adenine, one of the four nucleobases that form DNA.
Ethanamine (one of the newly discovered molecules) is thought to play a role in forming alanine, one of the twenty amino acids in the genetic code. Marie Curie Women and the Nobel Prize The only women to get the Nobel Prize twice
In Physics (1903):
Research on the radiation phenomena discovered by Henri Becquerel
One of the two women to receive a Nobel Prize in Physics
In Chemistry (1911):
Discovering polonium and radium
One of the four women to receive a Nobel Prize in Chemistry Ada E. Yonath In 2009
Research on the structure and function of the ribosome
Multiple discoveries after about 20 years of research
She is the only women to receive the Nobel Prize in Chemistry since 1964. Citations Standards Bureau Every country has a standards bureau whose job is to measure everything
Progress in any field depends on the fineness of the measurements
The Bureau International des Poids et Mesures
The standards bureau for all standards bureaus
Keeps track of the International Prototype Kilogram which is the worldwide official kilogram. National Institute of Standards and Technology The Antihydrogen TRAP (ATRAP-a team of collaborating scientists) experimented at CERN's (the European Organization for Nuclear Research) Antiproton Decelerator reporting a new measurement of an antiprotonmagnetic moment made with an unprecedented uncertainty of 4.4 parts per million (ppm).
680 times more precise than previous measurements.
Results from the experiment’s ability to trap individual protons and antiprotons, and to use a huge magnetic gradient to gain sensitivity to the tiny magnetic moment. Discovery of New Bacteria By 1911 Lewis and Clark had explored the majority of Antarctica, but no human had ever reached the South Pole.
Even though that year was colder, the Englishmen led by Scott were determined to be the first to reach the south pole.
When they arrived they found that Ronald Amundsen's team arrived there a month earlier.
The trip back was very difficult. They were marooned for weeks in a monsoon of snow flurries and they faced starvation, scurvy,dehydration, hypothermia, gangrene, and most devastatingly a lack of fuel.
Three of them pushed through until they were 11 miles wide of the British base. They died there unable to survive the last days. Russian scientists have claimed the discovery of a new type of bacterial life in water from a buried Antarctic lake called Vostok (largest subglacial lake in Antarctica). It is thought to have been cut off from the surface for millions of years.
Researchers have been studying samples from this lake. The team drilled through almost 4 km (2.34 miles) of ice to get to the lake and retrieve samples.
This has raised the possibility that such isolated bodies of water might host microbial life forms new to science.
The attention was focused on one particular form of bacteria whose DNA was less than 86% similar to previously existing forms. The Last Phosphorus
Discovered in 1669 by Brand Ununseptium
Discovered in 2010 by Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions. Superatoms Mimicking Elements They both have 4 valence electrons
Silicon has some of carbon's flexibility.
Carbon's flexibility is directly linked to its ability to form life.
Silicon's capacity to mimic carbon has made it the dream of generations of science fiction fans that are interested in different models of life. Certain combinations of elemental atoms have electronic signatures that mimic the electronic signatures of other elements.
Superatoms are clusters of atoms that exhibit some property of elemental atoms.
The researchers explained that the molecules titanium monoxide, zirconium monoxide, and tungsten carbide are superatoms of nickel, palladium, and platinum.
To examine the similarities, the researchers used a technique, called photoelectron imaging spectroscopy. Mercury, Cadmium, Lead, Arsenic, Aluminum Copper: the formation of certain bacteria, fungi, or algae on copper will cause microbes to absorb copper atoms which will disrupt their metabolism and kill them within a couple of hours.
Gadolinium: A potential cancer murderer.
Vanadium: The best spermicide. It dissolves the fatty membrane that surrounds the sperm cell making its guts fall out. Toxic element contamination was found in many supplements and pharmaceuticals; levels exceeding established limits were only found in a small percentage of the NHPs tested and none of the drugs tested.
Some NHPs demonstrated contamination levels above preferred daily endpoints for mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic or aluminum. NHPs manufactured in China generally had higher levels of mercury and aluminum. Toxic Chemical Sustains Life Removes sulfur and calcium for the body, affecting the bones.
Once it enters the body it cannot get flushed out.
Causes itai-itai disease Researchers conducted tests in the harsh environment of Mono Lake in California and discovered the first known microorganism to be able to thrive and reproduce using the toxic chemical arsenic.
Substitutes arsenic for phosphorus in its cell components. Belgians rushed to Congo's diamond and gold mines.
Anyone with a shovel could dig up pounds of gold.
Within hours, farmers could own twenty times what their metaphors did all year. So farmers began to abandon their farms which upset Congo's poor that are struggling with food supplies. Yukon and Alaska The Disappearing Spoon. (2010). Little Brown.Ancient Greece [Lecture notes]. (1998). Retrieved 2013, from How Stuff Works website: http://history.howstuffworks.com/ancient-greece/ancient-greece3.htmMap: Middle East. (2000). Retrieved 2005, from http://www.infoplease.com/atlas/middleeast.htmlARCH-0-3c-GREECE-Athens-TheatreOfDionysus-. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://home.manhattan.edu/arts/ gallery/picture.php?cat=10&image_id=3149 Video Shows Evidence of Phosphorus Bombs in Gaza. (2009, January 16). Retrieved from The Guardian website: http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2009/jan/16/phosphorus-bombs-video-israel-gazaThe Chemistry of Nitrogen and Phosphorous. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://chemed.chem.purdue.edu/ genchem/topicreview/bp/ch10/group5.phpIsrael used chemical weapons in Lebanon and Gaza. (2006, October 24). Retrieved from World Socialist Web Site: http://wsws.org/en/articles/2006/10/isra-o24.htmlIsraelis rain phosphorous bombs over Gaza. (2009, January 12). Retrieved from The Electronic Intifada website: http://electronicintifada.net/content/ israelis-rain-phosphorous-bombs-over-gaza/7965Discoveries Suggest Icy Cosmic Start for Amino Acids and DNA Ingredients. (2013, February 28). Retrieved from National Radio Astronomy Observatory website: http://www.nrao.edu/pr/2013/ newchem/ Life cycles of stars. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/schools/gcsebitesize/science/ add_aqa/stars/lifecyclestarsrev3.shtmlThe Beginning of the Universe in 3 Minutes. (2013, April 9). Retrieved from Universe Today website: http://www.universetoday.com/101344/the-beginning-of-the-universe-in-3-minutes/ Nobel Prize Awarded Women. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.nobelprize.org/nobel_prizes/lists/ women.html Technology Transfer Techniques. (n.d.). Retrieved from The Memoirs of a Refugee website: http://www.roitov.com/articles/technology.htm NIST - National Institute of Standards and Technology. (2013). Retrieved from E21 Generation website: http://www.windcurrent.com/success-stories/ nist--national-institute-of-standards-and-technology/Interview with National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) Computer Scientist, Kevin Mangold. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://findbiometrics.com/creo_files/default/nist_logo.jpgATRAP experiment makes world’s most precise measurement of antiproton magnetic moment. (2013, March 25). Retrieved from CERN press office website: http://press.web.cern.ch/press-releases/2013/03/ atrap-experiment-makes-worlds-most-precise-measurement-antiproton-magneticATRAP makes world’s most precise measurement of antiproton magnetic moment. (2013, April 26). Retrieved from http://cerncourier.com/cws/article/cern/53066Charlottesville History. (2013). Retrieved from http://www.charlottesvillerealestatesolutions.com/ charlottesville-history/Rincon, P. (2013, March 7). Antarctic Lake Vostok yields 'new bacterial life'. Retrieved from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/science-environment-21709225What was the first discovered element? (n.d.). Retrieved from Real Clear Science website: http://chemical-elements.realclearscience.com/app-question/4311/ What-was-the-first-discovered-elementWhat was the most recently discovered element? (n.d.). Retrieved from Real Clear Science website: http://chemical-elements.realclearscience.com/app-question/4414/ What-was-the-most-recently-discovered-elementProperties of ununseptium atoms. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.webelements.com/ununseptium/ atoms.htmlSimple atomic structure of Phosphorus : English name. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.micromountain.com/sci_diagrams/at_struct/at_struct_pages/phosphorus_lab_eng.htmSimple atomic structure of Silicon : Welsh name Silicon. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.micromountain.com/sci_diagrams/at_struct/at_struct_pages/silicon_lab_cym.htmSimple atomic structure of Carbon : Welsh name Carbon. (n.d.). Retrieved from http://www.micromountain.com/sci_diagrams/at_struct/at_struct_pages/carbon_lab_cym.htmLaJeunesse, S. (2009, December 29). Superatoms Mimic Elements: Research Gives New Perspective On Periodic Table. Retrieved from http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2009/12/091228152348.htm Toxic Element Contamination of Natural Health Products and Pharmaceutical Preparations. (2012). Retrieved from http://www.plosone.org/article/info%3Adoi%2F10.1371%2Fjournal.pone.0049676NASA-Funded Research Discovers Life Built With Toxic Chemical. (2010, December 3). Retrieved from http://www.nasa.gov/topics/universe/features/astrobiology_toxic_chemical.html News World news Democratic Republic of the Congo Congo: Blood, gold and mobile phones - video. (2011, September 2). Retrieved from http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/video/2011/sep/02/ congo-blood-gold-mobile-phones-videoThe Next Big Gold Discovery. (2011, February 23). Retrieved from http://seekingalpha.com/article/ 254355-the-next-big-gold-discovery Big discoveries of gold in both the Yukon and Alaska
Helped skyrocket the shares of many juniors to market caps that compete with current producers Citations Rafeef Hamad