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Group Cohesion

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by

Ian Birky

on 25 June 2013

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Transcript of Group Cohesion

Group Cohesion
Session Outline
Defining Cohesion
Carron’s Conceptual Model of Cohesion
Measuring Cohesion
The Cohesion––Performance Relationship
Defining Cohesion
Defining Cohesion
Task Cohesion
Carron's Conceptual
Model of Cohesion
Adapted, by permission, from A. Carron, 1982, "Cohesiveness in sports groups: Interpretations and considerations," Journal of Sports Psychology 4(2): 131.

Measuring Cohesion
Other Factors Associated With Cohesion
Building Cohesion
Sport settings
Exercise settings
Leader or coach strategies
Group member strategies
“A dynamic process reflected in the tendency for a group to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of its instrumental objectives and/or for the satisfaction of member affective needs” (Carron, Brawley, & Widmeyer, 1998)

The degree to which group members work together to achieve common goals and objectives
Social cohesion
The interpersonal attractions among group members
Questionnaires (e.g., Group Environment Questionnaire) focus on how attractive the group is to the individual members and how the members perceive the group.
Group integration—task subscale (e.g., Our team is united in trying to reach its goals for performance)
Group integration—social subscale (e.g., Members of our team do not stick together outside of practicing and games)
Individual attraction to group—task subscale (e.g., I don’t like the style of play on this team)
Individual attraction to group social subscale (e.g., Some of my best friends are on the team)
Sociogram
The Cohesion-Performance Relationship
Cohesion is positively related to performance. The relationship was traditionally thought to depend on several factors. Recent research has shown which of these factors do influence the cohesion–performance relationship.
The most recent research shows that increases in both task and social cohesion are associated with increased performance.
The Cohesion–Performance Relationship

Task Demands
Original research argued that the cohesion–performance relationship was stronger with interacting teams (e.g., volleyball) and that no relationship existed with co-acting teams (e.g., bowling).
However, the most recent research has shown the task demands
do not
influence the cohesion–performance relationship.
Circular relationship:
Increased cohesion leads to greater performance and brings teams together, which leads to still more cohesion.
Other Factors Associated With Cohesion
Team Satisfaction
Conformity
Increased cohesion is related to increased satisfaction.
The more cohesive a group is, the greater its pressure to conform to the attitudes and behaviors of the group.
Other Factors Associated With Cohesion (continued)
Adherence
Social Support
More cohesive exercise classes have better attendance, are more likely to arrive on time, are less likely to drop out, are more resistant to disruption, are more likely to experience positive affect related to exercise, and have stronger efficacy for exercise.
There is a positive relationship between the social support an individual receives and that person’s evaluation of group cohesion.
Other Correlates of Cohesion
Stability
Teams higher in cohesion can better resist disruption; teams staying together longer tend to be more cohesive.
Group Goals
Group goals are tied to group cohesion.
Other Factors
Other factors are group status, role clarity and acceptance, group norms, decision style, collective efficacy, self-handicapping, gender
Building Cohesion
Exercise Setting
Sport Settings
Exercise classes with high feelings of group cohesion have fewer dropouts and late arrivals than do classes low in cohesion
Team-building exercises, clear and meaningful roles, team goals, communication, and personal sacrifice are related to increased cohesion.
The
MAPS
Approach to Team Building
M
ission: Derive and clarify team mission.
A
ssessment: Assess team strengths and areas needing improvement.
P
lan: Develop action plans to improve effort and commitment.
S
ystematic evaluation: Reflect, review, and revise group goals and plans.
Strategies Suggested to Build Group Cohesiveness
Increase distinctiveness by
having a group name,
making a group T-shirt,
handing out neon shoelaces, or
making posters for class
Principles Underlying the Team-Building Program in a Sport Setting
Coaches used several principles to develop team-building programs, including leadership, distinctiveness, and sacrifice.
Guidelines for Building Team Cohesion
Leader Strategies
Communicate effectively.
Explain individual roles in team success.
Develop pride within subunits.
Set challenging team goals.
Encourage team identity.
Avoid formation of social cliques.
Avoid excessive turnover.
Conduct periodic team meetings.
Know the team climate.
Get to know others; enhance personal disclosure.

Guidelines for Building Team Cohesion
Group member strategies
Get to know members of the group.
Help group members whenever possible.
Give group members positive reinforcement.
Be responsible.
Communicate honestly and openly with coach or leader.
Give 100% effort at all times.
The End
Full transcript