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Age of Anxiety WHAP
Transcript of Age of Anxiety WHAP
Syndicalism: new econ system (like Socialism) in which industry controlled by unions.
Mexican Revolution: During the war, LA countries lost important markets and became more independent. Other causes were Nationalism, class conflict, and art (Diego Rivera and Jose Orozco).
Start: Porfirio Diaz rigs election and imprisons Francisco Madero. N. Rev led by Pancho Villa, S. Rev led by Emiliano Zapata. Diaz replaced by Madero, who was then replaced by Zapata.
Victoriano Huerta began a dictatorship, and finally Alberto Obregon became President in 1921.
Recap from last prezi: Harty-style.
Post WWI: People angry that RU/Lenin snubbed at PPC. Lenin then LOST the Parliamentary elections. So he created a new Congress of Soviets, imposing Comm control.
Led to Civil War: Red Army v. White Army. Reds win.
Lenin imposed New Economic Policy of 1921 to stabalize economy and created USSR. The Supreme Soviet made up of Comm Reps.
Post-Lenin= STALIN. He emphasized nationalism and collectivization. Five Year Plans to industrialize nation brought many ppl work, but no consumer goods and terrible working conditions. Plus, FAMINE.
Qing Empire fell in 1912.
Sun Yat-sen initially elected Pres of the new Republic (song almost finished), but ceded power to Yuan Shikai who wanted to be emperor. This along with JP aggression during WWI led to its collapse and the May Fourth Movement: anti-Imperalism, anti-Traditional movement led to rise of Nationalist and Communist Parties.
Nationalists led by Chiang Kai-shek, Communists led by Mao Zedong. Led to civil war for power. Initial defeats led Mao to flee to countryside (Long March), and then Kai-shek became distracted by JP aggression a la WWII.
Global Great Depression
Stuctural weakness in industrial economies.
A price collapse occurred as a result of cheap agricultural improts and rising European production. Recovery in the 1920s was partially based on US Loans.
Production in Africa and LA also outstripped demand, causing economic hardship.
Reaction: Focused on internal production protection, raising tariffs. Worsened situation.
US Stock Collapse in 1929 caused bank failures in US and Euro.
Life During Depression
Shantytowns, disenchantment with earlier optimism of Roaring 20s.
Parliamentary systems were challenged everywhere.
France: new political parties: socialism, communism emerged.
Sweden: became a welfare state.
US: Elected Franklin Roosevelt (my personal fav) who instituted New Deal to bring jobs and regulate banking. It didn't end Depression, but helped restore faith in the gov't, sidestepping Communist/Socialist overthrow.
Revolutions: First Waves
AP World History
Age of Anxiety
The World Between the Wars
The Roaring Twenties
Global Great Depression
Life after WWI
Europe faced massive econ probs after WWI, but society still optimistic (the Anna of Arendalle of the world)
Art: Cubist Movement led by Picasso.
Science: Einstein challenged traditional styles in science (Theory of Relativity)
Shopping: (can I get a WOO?!) Mass consumption a powerful force. Hey Ladies! You became IMPORTANT consumers.
Even though we have all this optimism (especially in America), there was some anxiety over impending econ problems.
Pablo Picasso, 1911
Post WWI Development for Allied Powers
Japan continued to industrialize on a rapid and grand scale, but there was also strain b/t its military and gov't. (more on that later)
US continued to industrialize (Henry Ford and the assembly line comes in here).
US also started to export its culture with Hollywood films and Jazz music. However, also withdrew from foreign affairs.
Political Shifts and Beginnings
1919, Benito Mussolini founded Fascism. Basic tenents:
Corporate State: State controls every facet of life. Led to the creation of the word totalitarian. No individuality- you exist for the state.
New nations in E. Euro created in climate of intesen nationalism. This led to rivalries and the global great depression (GGD) paved way for authoritarian gov'ts.
German Nationalist Party (Nazi) was a Fascist party, and made Fascism an international force.
Hitler promised a return to traditional values, ridding GY of Jewish influence, and solving its economic problems (hyper inflation).
Created a totalitarian state in GY and enforced it using the gestapo to control all facets of life.
Targeting Jews to initially have them emigrate, by 1940 he aimed to exterminate all Jews in the German Empire (Holocaust).
European Responses to Hitler
Hitler's success led to fascist movements in Hungary, Romania, Austria, and SPAIN!
Mussolini invaded Ethiopia in 1935, and LON took no action, so Italy eventually took the nation.
In Spain, Francisco Franco, backed by Fascists, started a Civil War against opposing a Republic form. 1936-39, Franco won.
Latin American Responses to GGD
Liberalism failed in LA after is did nothing to address social class struggles. e
Brazil: Vargas created a corporatist regime in which the gov't acted a mediator within society. However, he based his regime off Mussolini. Though siding with the Allies he eventually committed suicide after the war due to backlash from both right and left wings of society. He became a nationalist martyr.
Argentina: Juan Peron led a nationalist populist gov't, nationalized industry, and was pro-fascism. Eventually overthrown by opposition parties and was exiled. But he CAME BACK! Won the presidency in 1973, but died the next year and Argentina slid into a military dictatorship.
Depression led to JP military controlling the gov't n 1932.
Went to war with China in 1937 and led to JP control of Manchuria, KOR, and Taiwan. Control turned to brutal oppression, especially in KOR.
Military takeover led to easement of GGD, and began to industrialize at a rapid pace.
Growth of Stalinism
USSR mostly immune to GGD. Stalin continued to industrialize and began collectivization of farm land.
Anti-Collectivization peasants were exiled or killed. This along with famine (some gov't imposed) led to 12 million deaths during these Five Year Plans.
Industrially, the five year plans were very successful.
Culture: Art was managed under Socialist Realism to celebrate socialism. The Secret Police purged pol'l opponents. The Politburo executive committee okay'ed any and all of Stalin's plans.
Hitler's rise scared RU b/c he hated Slavic people, so they signed a Non Aggression Pact in order to buy some time to arm itself for impending war.
Canada, Australia, and New Zealand won independence ad became equal members in the British Commonwealth of Nations under Statute of Westminster
The Jew is the instigator of the war