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12.3 DNA Replication Notes

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Kelli Trask

on 25 September 2017

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Transcript of 12.3 DNA Replication Notes

12.3 DNA Replication
THINK ABOUT IT
Before a cell divides, its DNA must first be copied.

How might the double-helix structure of DNA make that possible?
What role does DNA polymerase play in copying DNA?
Copying the Code
The Replication Process
Before a cell divides the DNA must be replicated
Replication of DNA ensures all cells have the complete set of DNA
Step 1: 2 strands are separated
Each strand is used as a template
Where the strand is separated is called the replication fork
Step 2: Bases are added based on the base pairing rule
Step 3: 2 strands of DNA formed
Each strand of DNA formed contain 1 original piece and 1 new piece
This is called
semi-conservative
replication
The Role of Enzymes in DNA Replication
Helicase
Unzips the DNA strand
Breaks Hydrogen Bonds between nitrogen bases
Joins individual nucleotides to produce the new strand of DNA
Proofreads the new DNA strand makes sure bases have been added correctly
DNA Polymerase
Telomeres
Tips of chromosomes
Difficult region to replicate
Enzyme known as telomerase
adds short DNA repeated sequence
Lengthens chromosome
Making it less likely to lose part of a gene
Prokaryotes vs Eukaryotes
Prokaryotes
Replication at a Single Point
Proceeds in both directions
until chromosome is copied
Eukaryotes
Replication at many points
Proceeds in both direction until chromosome is copied
Most have one large Circular DNA
Many chromosomes that are helical shaped
Let's Review
True/False: DNA must be replicated before a cell divides.
True/False: In DNA replication 2 complementary strands are duplicated
True/False: The double strand unwinds during replication
True/False: DNA replication is catalzyed by enzymes called mutagens
What enzyme is responsible for breaking the hydrogen bonds between nitrogen bases?
What enzyme is responsible for adding nucleotides to the growing DNA strand?
What does semi-conservative replication mean?
Full transcript