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Creativity

Facilitation
by

Johannes Petrus

on 18 November 2012

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Transcript of Creativity

Solutions to these
obstacles? What prevents
Creativity? Creativity Lisa Rademacher
Johannes Dizinger What is Creativity? What is Creativity? 1. What is Creativity?
Guessing game: Definitions

2. What prevents Creativity?
Activity game
Fallacies
Difficulties with creativity implementation

3. Solutions to these Obstacles?
Solutions
Company examples: P&G and Microsoft

4. Application and Discussion of the Literature
Common ground and differences
Relating the literature
Personal criticisms
How creative are YOU?
Discussion questions How to enhance Creativity? Activity Game! 2. Obstacles and Challanges Creatvity? - Obstacles and Challenges - Solutions - Application and Discussion of the Literature Workload
Downsizing
Technology
Critics
Routine
Beaurocracy
Free time Discussed Obstacles Stress as status
Ongoing cognitive challenges
Groups
Process improvement
Hostile environment
brainstorming Additional Obstacles Fallacies Brainstorming Free time Punish failure Obey superiors Check the process Let happy
people fight Why do ideas for promiting for ceativity seem so strange and get rarely implemented? Implementing Counterintuitive ideas
Short-term results are preferred
Creativity bears uncertainty (results?)
Not primary activity Difficulties in Implementing Creativity Solutions Creatvity? - Obstacles and Challenges - Solutions - Application and Discussion of the Literature Creatvity? - Obstacles and Challenges - Solutions - Application and Discussion of the Literature Creatvity? - Obstacles and Challenges - Solutions - Application and Discussion of the Literature 1. Oxford dictionairy:
"the use of _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ or original
_ _ _ _ _ to create something;
_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _:"


2.Additional literature:
"The _ _ _ _ _ _ _ to _ _ _ _ _ _ _ work that is
_ _ _ _ _." Creatvity? - Obstacles and Challenges - Solutions - Application and Discussion of the Literature (Sternberg and Lubart, 1999) Creatvity? - Obstacles and Challenges - Solutions - Application and Discussion of the Literature Creatvity? - Obstacles and Challenges - Solutions - Application and Discussion of the Literature Creatvity? - Obstacles and Challenges - Solutions - Application and Discussion of the Literature Creatvity? - Obstacles and Challenges - Solutions - Application and Discussion of the Literature Creatvity? - Obstacles and Challenges - Solutions - Application and Discussion of the Literature Agree! Common Ground and Differences Draw four straight lines through the nine dots without retracing and without lifting your pen from the paper. How creative are YOU? Disagree! Disagree! The key to the solution is, of course, that the imaginary boundaries formed by the dots need not be observed.
Once freed from this restriction, you will find the solution easy, as shown here. Solution: It is not necessary to draw four lines through the centers of the dots; the problem can be solved with only three lines. Stanford Solution: Creatvity? - Obstacles and Challenges - Solutions - Application and Discussion of the Literature Creatvity? - Obstacles and Challenges - Solutions - Application and Discussion of the Literature Creatvity? - Obstacles and Challenges - Solutions - Application and Discussion of the Literature Groups are more creative (Amabile & Khaire p. 102 l. 14) vs inidividuals are more creative (Elsbach& Hargadon p. 473 l. 18)

Creativity results from action (Sutton p.102 l. 1) vs restore cognitive capacity to be creative by taking a mental break (Kaplan & Kaplan in Elsbach & Hargadon p. 478 l. 15) - Can you think outside the box? - Diversity enhances creativity:
(Johansson in Amabile & Khaire p.103 l. 2 and Coyne et al. p.76 l. and Sutton pp. 98-99)

Create a supportive environment:
(Amabile & Khaire p. 105 l. 44 and Sutton p. 100 l. 74)

Failure is ok and beneficial to some extent:
(Amabile & Khaire p. 107 l. 33 and Sutton p. 100 l 25) Agree! References TED: “Tim Brown: Tales of creativity and play” http://www.ted.com/talks/tim_brown_on_creativity_and_play.html

Sutton, R. "The Weird Rules of Creativity." Harvard Business Review 79.8 (2001): 94-
130. Web.
Amabile, T.M. & Khaire, M. (2008). Creativity and the role of the leader. Harvard
Business Review, 86 (10), pp 100-109
Coyne, K.P., Clifford, P.G. & Dye, R. (2007). Breakthrough thinking from inside the box.
Harvard Business Review, 85 (12), pp 70-78
Elsbach, K.D. & Hargadon, A.B. (2006). Enhanching creativity through “mindless”
work: A framework of workday design. Organization Science, 17, pp 470-483 Discussion Questions Your solutions please! Role of the Leader Drawing on the right minds
Ideas from all ranks
Collaboration
Diversity

Map the stages of creativity
and satisfy their needs
Create a safe environment
Failure is inevitable and enables learning
Motivate by challenging and being appreciativ Role of the Leader Thinking inside the box -> ''Go wild'' can be succesful for highly creative peolpe

Brainstorming is useful without expert advice

Method of "Mindless work" seems reasonable -> Useful productive breaks, without doing nothing (Building sandcastles)

Do you have any expierences with mindless work? Personal Criticisms Create boxes by employing useful questions
Approach the challenge from new angles
Orchestrating the process by 7 steps

1. Contrain the range of acceptable questions
2. Select participants.
3. Ensure mutual engagement
4. Structurethe meeting to ensure social norms work for you.
5. Focus the discussion.
6. Employ more than one brainstorming session
7. Narrow the list of ideas to the ones you will seriously investigate right away Breakthrough by Constraining Breakthrough Thinking from Inside the Box The weird Rules of Creativity
Hiring
Slow learners
Skills you don't need
Novices

Manage for creative sparks
Encourage to ignore and defy superiors
Let happy people fight
Reassign productive people
Reward success and failure, punish inaction
"Don't dig a new seed."

Passion and commitment are crucial to success
Get new views and opinions
Culture building Counterintuitive Ideas Framework of Workday Design Workday design: Alternating periods of cognitive capacity intensive work and mindless work

Definition of mindless work: "Tasks that are low in cognitive difficulty and performance pressure"(Elsbach and Hargadon p.475)

Mindless work achieves:
High cognitive capacity
Psychological saftey
Positive affect

Enhance creativity during high cognitive capacity phases:
Reduce the intrinsic cognitive overload and extrinsic
Psychological states:
Meaningfulness
Responsibility for work outcomes
Knowledge fo the actual results fo the work activities Workday Design 1. Is creativity innate?

2. Does school "kill" creativity?

3. How could you apply and enhance creativity in your life within the next 2 days? Past sessions Relating the Literature
Paradigm shift (Session 2):

Shift to Workday design ( mindless work)
"aprubt shift to a more innovative driven economy" (Amabile & Khaire, 2008)

Familiar, stable teams are more successful (Session 6):

(TED video & Hackman interview in Coutu, 2009) Relating the Literature to Past Sessions Allowed methods:
Roleplay
Pantomime
Drawing Creatvity? - Obstacles and Challenges - Solutions - Application and Discussion of the Literature Exploration of new possibilities Exploitation
of the proven knowledge (cc) photo by medhead on Flickr Exposure Effect Creatvity? - Obstacles and Challenges - Solutions - Application and Discussion of the Literature Creatvity? - Obstacles and Challenges - Solutions - Application and Discussion of the Literature Creatvity? - Obstacles and Challenges - Solutions - Application and Discussion of the Literature Procter & Gamble's "Swiffer"

Out of the box thinking
View the problems from different angles

Microsoft Xbox Company Examples Creatvity? - Obstacles and Challenges - Solutions - Application and Discussion of the Literature Creatvity? - Obstacles and Challenges - Solutions - Application and Discussion of the Literature Creatvity? - Obstacles and Challenges - Solutions - Application and Discussion of the Literature Creatvity? - Obstacles and Challenges - Solutions - Application and Discussion of the Literature Creatvity? - Obstacles and Challenges - Solutions - Application and Discussion of the Literature Creatvity? - Obstacles and Challenges - Solutions - Application and Discussion of the Literature Passion
Secure environment
Break the rules
Diverse teams Microsoft Creatvity? - Obstacles and Challenges - Solutions - Application and Discussion of the Literature How to enhance creativity?

Provide safe environment
Stimulate passion
Reward failure
Attention: Great ideas can come from all ranks
Honor Diversity
Include mindless work
Take care of the process
Be brave to implement counterintuitive ideas
Guide to success Conclusion and Summary "Creativity is contagious, pass it on."
- Albert Einstein Hicks,Marck A. Turbo Thinking Cap. Digital image. Discovery Education. N.p., n.d. web.
http://www.google.de/imgres?imgurl=http://school.discoveryeducation.com/clipart/images/thinkingcapwhoa.com
Jones, G.R. & George, J.M. (2011). Essentials of Contemporary Management fourth edition. New York, US: McGraw-Hill:
pages: 174-178
Ken Robinson Says Schools Kill Creativity (2006). Perf. Ken Robinson. TED, n.d. Web.
Oxford Dictionary. N.p., n.d. Web. <http://oxforddictionaries.com/definition/english/creativity?q=creativity>.
Sternberg, R.J. and Lubart,T.I., "An Investment Theory of Creativity and Its Development." Human Development .34
(1991): ] 1 - 32.
Titus, Philip A. "Applied Creativity: The Creative Marketing Breakthrough Model." Journal of Marketing Education 29
(2007): n. pag. Web.
Weblog post. Glencoe. N.p., n.d. Web. 26 Sept. 2012.
<http://www.glencoe.com/sec/busadmin/entre/teacher/creative/stimulate/exer9.htm>. Application and Discussion
Full transcript