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Transcript of Ancient China
Defining the shi as gentry scholars is not wholly accurate. The ancient shi came from an ancient warrior caste.but the make-up of the shi gradually evolved until it was mostly made of aristocratic scholars who studied in order to occupy positions of rank. Scholars, even though they own land, aren't rich. However, they are respected for their knowledge. The Society Structure of Ancient China Nong- Peasant Farmers
Peasant farmers were only after the shi. Farmers owned land like the gentry scholars, and agriculture played a key role. They not only grew food to sustain the society, but they paid land tax. Therefore, the farmers were valuable members of the society even though they weren't shi. However, shi families were still land owners who also produced crops and food themselves. Gong- Artisans and Craftsmen
The gong were the people who had the skills to create useful and important items. Most of them didn't own land though. However, they commanded more respect than merchants because their skills were passed down from father to son. Artisans could be self- employed or government employed. Those that were most successful could become wealthy enough to hire apprentices or laborers that they could manage.
Shang- Merchants and Traders
There wasn't a lot of respect towards the shang in ancient Chinese society. Even though they could achieve significant wealth, they were held in low consideration for they didn't produce anything. Some merchants bought land to be considered farmers and command respect. Others would buy a good education for their descendants so that they could earn the status of scholars. Shi Nong Gong Shang
Bronze Age (Xia Dynasty)
Spinning/ weaving Innovations from Different Periods of Ancient China Bronze Age (Yin Dynasty)
•Bronze vessels, weapons, and tools
•Carved jade and turtle shells for divination
War chariots drawn by horses Neolithic Age
Bronze and copper tools
India ink Other Languages Spoken in Ancient China Mandarin (official language spoken)
Cantonese (major dialect)
Other dialects spoken in southeast and southwest: Wu, Min, Hakka, Gan and Xiang
Non- Chinese based Languages:
Uighur (Turkish based language) Tibetan (based on ancient Indian Brahmi script) China has many words that are pronounced the same but have different meanings. Tones are used to differentiate between the words. In Mandarin there are four tones used. These are: flat, rising, fall-rising, and falling. Horse Mother Scold Hemp Ancient Chinese Government Video Links http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/7250-china-innovation-in-ancient-china-video.htm
http://www.chinavideoclips.net/educational-videos/inventions Chinese Religious Practices and Beliefs The Afterlife The emperor and his family, also known as the imperial family, were at the top of the central government system. Next was the prime minister. They held many official posts. Then there were the six ministries. These ministries were responsible for the administration of important aspects of the government. After the ministries was the censorate. Its main job was to provide oversight of the bureaucracy. Finally, there was the Hanlin Academy. The Hanlin Academy was established in the eight century, and it wasn't a school. The Academicians provided the emperor with a staff of academically talented people he could call on as the need arose. Bibliography "Ancient China Social Classes." Kwint Essential. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Jan. 2013. <www.kwintessential.co.uk>.
"Chinese Ancestor Worship." Religion Facts. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Jan. 2013.
"Chinese Divination and Astrology." Religion Facts. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Jan. 2013. <www.religionfacts.com>
"Government Offices and Ranks in China." N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <www.albany.edu>.
Gill, N.S. "Accomplishments by Period and Dynasty in Ancient China." About.com Ancient/Classical History. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Jan. 2013. <ancienthistory.about.com>.
Briney, Amanda. "The Geography and Modern History of China." About.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2013. <geography.about.com>.