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Ancient China

Ancient China

Toralei Autseenesca

on 28 January 2013

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Transcript of Ancient China

by Jamie Bunt Ancient China photo credit Nasa / Goddard Space Flight Center / Reto Stöckli China is located in Asia. The most famous landmarks in China is the Great Wall of China. This wall passes 156 counties in ten cities including Liaoning, Hebei, Tianjin, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia, Shaanxi, Gansu Qinghai, and the capital Beijing. China is also the third largest country in the world in terms of area but the world's largest country based on population. Because of its area and variations in topography, China's climate is varied. Ancient China has existed from 2205 BCE to 265 CE. The Chinese conception of the afterlife is based on a combination of Chinese folk religions, Taoism and Mahayana Buddhism. At the moment of death, the Chinese believe that the spirit is taken by the messengers to the god of walls and moats. This god is known as Ch'eng Huang, who conducts a preliminary hearing. If the spirit is found virtuous, it may go to one of the Buddist paradises, to the place of the Taoist immortals, or the 10th court of hell for immediate rebirth. One ritual practice is Chinese Ancestor Worship. It's based on the belief that deceased family members continue in existence, take interest in the affairs of the world, and possess the ability to influence the fortune of the living. Early forms of ancestor worship were extensively developed by the Late Neolithic Period in China. Chinese religious rituals are based in Chinese folk religion but are influenced in Taoism and Buddhism. Chinese astrology is a way in which ancient prophetical practices have survived. It is also known as the science of astronomy. The ancient Chinese astronomers named the five major planets by the names of the Five Elements. Venus is Metal (gold); Jupiter is Wood; Mercury is Water; Mars is Fire; Saturn is Earth. The position of the five planets, the sun, the moon and comets in the sky and the Chinese zodiac sign at the time a person was born determine the destiny of a person's life according to the Chinese astrology. Shi- Gentry Scholars
Defining the shi as gentry scholars is not wholly accurate. The ancient shi came from an ancient warrior caste.but the make-up of the shi gradually evolved until it was mostly made of aristocratic scholars who studied in order to occupy positions of rank. Scholars, even though they own land, aren't rich. However, they are respected for their knowledge. The Society Structure of Ancient China Nong- Peasant Farmers
Peasant farmers were only after the shi. Farmers owned land like the gentry scholars, and agriculture played a key role. They not only grew food to sustain the society, but they paid land tax. Therefore, the farmers were valuable members of the society even though they weren't shi. However, shi families were still land owners who also produced crops and food themselves. Gong- Artisans and Craftsmen
The gong were the people who had the skills to create useful and important items. Most of them didn't own land though. However, they commanded more respect than merchants because their skills were passed down from father to son. Artisans could be self- employed or government employed. Those that were most successful could become wealthy enough to hire apprentices or laborers that they could manage.

Shang- Merchants and Traders
There wasn't a lot of respect towards the shang in ancient Chinese society. Even though they could achieve significant wealth, they were held in low consideration for they didn't produce anything. Some merchants bought land to be considered farmers and command respect. Others would buy a good education for their descendants so that they could earn the status of scholars. Shi Nong Gong Shang
Bronze Age (Xia Dynasty)
Agriculture/ Pasturage
Spinning/ weaving Innovations from Different Periods of Ancient China Bronze Age (Yin Dynasty)
•Bronze vessels, weapons, and tools
•Carved jade and turtle shells for divination
•Glazed pottery
War chariots drawn by horses Neolithic Age
Decorative jade
Bronze and copper tools
India ink Other Languages Spoken in Ancient China Mandarin (official language spoken)
Cantonese (major dialect)
Other dialects spoken in southeast and southwest: Wu, Min, Hakka, Gan and Xiang

Non- Chinese based Languages:
Uighur (Turkish based language) Tibetan (based on ancient Indian Brahmi script) China has many words that are pronounced the same but have different meanings. Tones are used to differentiate between the words. In Mandarin there are four tones used. These are: flat, rising, fall-rising, and falling. Horse Mother Scold Hemp Ancient Chinese Government Video Links http://videos.howstuffworks.com/discovery/7250-china-innovation-in-ancient-china-video.htm

http://www.chinavideoclips.net/educational-videos/inventions Chinese Religious Practices and Beliefs The Afterlife The emperor and his family, also known as the imperial family, were at the top of the central government system. Next was the prime minister. They held many official posts. Then there were the six ministries. These ministries were responsible for the administration of important aspects of the government. After the ministries was the censorate. Its main job was to provide oversight of the bureaucracy. Finally, there was the Hanlin Academy. The Hanlin Academy was established in the eight century, and it wasn't a school. The Academicians provided the emperor with a staff of academically talented people he could call on as the need arose. Bibliography "Ancient China Social Classes." Kwint Essential. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Jan. 2013. <www.kwintessential.co.uk>.
"Chinese Ancestor Worship." Religion Facts. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Jan. 2013.
"Chinese Divination and Astrology." Religion Facts. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Jan. 2013. <www.religionfacts.com>
"Government Offices and Ranks in China." N.p., n.d. Web. 6 Jan. 2013. <www.albany.edu>.
Gill, N.S. "Accomplishments by Period and Dynasty in Ancient China." About.com Ancient/Classical History. N.p., n.d. Web. 5 Jan. 2013. <ancienthistory.about.com>.
Briney, Amanda. "The Geography and Modern History of China." About.com. N.p., n.d. Web. 28 Jan. 2013. <geography.about.com>.
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