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Cracking Hydrocarbons

Lesson
by

nig forl

on 10 January 2013

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Transcript of Cracking Hydrocarbons

Propene C3H6 A hydrocarbon with a double bond, e.g. ethene Unsaturated hydrocarbon A substance that speeds up a reaction
The catalyst is not used up in the reaction Catalyst A family of hydrocarbons which are unsaturated
Alkenes have the general formula CnH2n Alkene For the next slides think of a definition for each keyword & count how many you get correct
For the last slide using your knowledge
of alkane’s names guess the name of
shown alkene Plenary Orange bromine water becomes colourless when it
reacts with ethene and other unsaturated compounds Is an ALKENE They are UNSATURATED hydrocarbons
The double bonds is a stronger bond & it makes it more reactive than Ethane
Alkene general formula = CnH2n
Using Bromine water can test if unsaturated compounds are present Ethene In cracking, each octane molecule breaks down to
(C2H4) Alkane in the Naptha fraction
C8H18
Breaks down into HEXANE (C2H4) & ETHENE(C6H14)

Hexane useful = added to petrol so there’s more petrol to sell Octane Involves heating a fraction, until they Vaporise
This is then passed over a CATALYST (a substance that speeds up a reaction)
Alkanes in the vapour break down to form smaller molecules in aThermal Decomposition reaction
Can also be broken down by mixing their own vapours with steam & heating to a very high temp Cracking Companies use cracking to break down bigger hydrocarbon molecules to smaller more useful molecules Fractional distillation of crude oil makes useful products including petrol. However sometimes the Supply doesn't match the demand Name 2 Biofuels
What are Alkanes?
What are the molecular formulas for a) Ethane b) Propane c) Butane? (3 marks)
How does molecule size effect Boiling point?
What does Viscous mean?
How is Crude oil separated?
What are particulates, and where do they come from?
Fuel + Oxygen ? + ? Out of 10 L.O
Explain how cracking makes useful products (E)

Identify the products of cracking reactions (C)

Identify an economic benefit of cracking reactions (A*) Cracking Crude Oil Explain how cracking makes useful products (E)

Identify the products of cracking reactions (C)

Identify an economic benefit of cracking reactions (A*) Out of 5 Involves heating an oil fraction to a high temperature
The hydrocarbons of the fraction vaporise Cracking




AC1.18.1 Cracking a hydrocarbon
Today, you will use a technique called ‘cracking’ to break down alkane molecules in paraffin to make alkanes(with shorter chains) and alkenes. Practical Ethanol (made from sugar cane) & Biodiesel (plant oils or animal fat)
Saturated Hydrocarbons with Single covalent bonds
A) C2H6 B) C3H8 C) C4H10
Smaller = Lower B.P
How easily something pours
Distillation (fractional)
Soot, a form of carbon. From Vehicle pollution
Carbon Dioxide + Water Answers /10 Propene C3H6 Involves heating an oil fraction to a high temperature
The hydrocarbons of the fraction vaporise Cracking A substance that speeds up a reaction
The catalyst is not used up in the reaction Catalyst A family of hydrocarbons which are unsaturated
Alkenes have the general formula CnH2n Alkene




AC1.18.1 Cracking a hydrocarbon
Today, you will use a technique called ‘cracking’ to break down alkane molecules in paraffin to make alkanes(with shorter chains) and alkenes. Practical Orange bromine water becomes colourless when it
reacts with ethene and other unsaturated compounds Is an ALKENE They are UNSATURATED hydrocarbons
The double bonds is a stronger bond & it makes it more reactive than Ethane
Alkene general formula = CnH2n
Using Bromine water can test if unsaturated compounds are present Ethene In cracking, each octane molecule breaks down to
(C2H4) Alkane in the Naptha fraction
C8H18
Breaks down into HEXANE (C2H4) & ETHENE(C6H14)

Hexane useful = added to petrol so there’s more petrol to sell Octane Involves heating a fraction, until they Vaporise
This is then passed over a CATALYST (a substance that speeds up a reaction)
Alkanes in the vapour break down to form smaller molecules in aThermal Decomposition reaction
Can also be broken down by mixing their own vapours with steam & heating to a very high temp Cracking Companies use cracking to break down bigger hydrocarbon molecules to smaller more useful molecules Fractional distillation of crude oil makes useful products including petrol. However sometimes the Supply doesn't match the demand Ethanol (made from sugar cane) & Biodiesel (plant oils or animal fat)
Saturated Hydrocarbons with Single covalent bonds
A) C2H6 B) C3H8 C) C4H10
Smaller = Lower B.P
How easily something pours
Distillation (fractional)
Soot, a form of carbon. From Vehicle pollution
Carbon Dioxide + Water Answers /10 L.O
Explain how cracking makes useful products (E)

Identify the products of cracking reactions (C)

Identify an economic benefit of cracking reactions (A*) Cracking Crude Oil Explain how cracking makes useful products (E)

Identify the products of cracking reactions (C)

Identify an economic benefit of cracking reactions (A*) Out of 5 A hydrocarbon with a double bond, e.g. ethene Unsaturated hydrocarbon For the next slides think of a definition for each keyword & count how many you get correct
For the last slide using your knowledge
of alkane’s names guess the name of
shown alkene Plenary Name 2 Biofuels
What are Alkanes?
What are the molecular formulas for a) Ethane b) Propane c) Butane? (3 marks)
How does molecule size effect Boiling point?
What does Viscous mean?
How is Crude oil separated?
What are particulates, and where do they come from?
Fuel + Oxygen ? + ? Out of 10 Explain how cracking makes useful products (E)

Identify the products of cracking reactions (C)

Identify an economic benefit of cracking reactions (A*) Out of 5 Propene C3H6 A hydrocarbon with a double bond, e.g. ethene Unsaturated hydrocarbon Involves heating an oil fraction to a high temperature
The hydrocarbons of the fraction vaporise Cracking A substance that speeds up a reaction
The catalyst is not used up in the reaction Catalyst A family of hydrocarbons which are unsaturated
Alkenes have the general formula CnH2n Alkene For the next slides think of a definition for each keyword & count how many you get correct
For the last slide using your knowledge
of alkane’s names guess the name of
shown alkene Plenary Orange bromine water becomes colourless when it
reacts with ethene and other unsaturated compounds Is an ALKENE They are UNSATURATED hydrocarbons
The double bonds is a stronger bond & it makes it more reactive than Ethane
Alkene general formula = CnH2n
Using Bromine water can test if unsaturated compounds are present Ethene In cracking, each octane molecule breaks down to
(C2H4) Alkane in the Naptha fraction
C8H18
Breaks down into HEXANE (C2H4) & ETHENE(C6H14)

Hexane useful = added to petrol so there’s more petrol to sell Octane Companies use cracking to break down bigger hydrocarbon molecules to smaller more useful molecules Fractional distillation of crude oil makes useful products including petrol. However sometimes the Supply doesn't match the demand Name 2 Biofuels
What are Alkanes?
What are the molecular formulas for a) Ethane b) Propane c) Butane? (3 marks)
How does molecule size effect Boiling point?
What does Viscous mean?
How is Crude oil separated?
What are particulates, and where do they come from?
Fuel + Oxygen ? + ? Out of 10 L.O
Explain how cracking makes useful products (E)

Identify the products of cracking reactions (C)

Identify an economic benefit of cracking reactions (A*) Cracking Crude Oil




AC1.18.1 Cracking a hydrocarbon
Today, you will use a technique called ‘cracking’ to break down alkane molecules in paraffin to make alkanes(with shorter chains) and alkenes. Practical Involves heating a fraction, until they Vaporise
This is then passed over a CATALYST (a substance that speeds up a reaction)
Alkanes in the vapour break down to form smaller molecules in aThermal Decomposition reaction
Can also be broken down by mixing their own vapours with steam & heating to a very high temp Cracking Ethanol (made from sugar cane) & Biodiesel (plant oils or animal fat)
Saturated Hydrocarbons with Single covalent bonds
A) C2H6 B) C3H8 C) C4H10
Smaller = Lower B.P
How easily something pours
Distillation (fractional)
Soot, a form of carbon. From Vehicle pollution
Carbon Dioxide + Water Answers /10 Propene C3H6 A hydrocarbon with a double bond, e.g. ethene Unsaturated hydrocarbon Involves heating an oil fraction to a high temperature
The hydrocarbons of the fraction vaporise Cracking A substance that speeds up a reaction
The catalyst is not used up in the reaction Catalyst For the next slides think of a definition for each keyword & count how many you get correct
For the last slide using your knowledge
of alkane’s names guess the name of
shown alkene Plenary




AC1.18.1 Cracking a hydrocarbon
Today, you will use a technique called ‘cracking’ to break down alkane molecules in paraffin to make alkanes(with shorter chains) and alkenes. Practical Is an ALKENE They are UNSATURATED hydrocarbons
The double bonds is a stronger bond & it makes it more reactive than Ethane
Alkene general formula = CnH2n
Using Bromine water can test if unsaturated compounds are present Ethene In cracking, each octane molecule breaks down to
(C2H4) Alkane in the Naptha fraction
C8H18
Breaks down into HEXANE (C2H4) & ETHENE(C6H14)

Hexane useful = added to petrol so there’s more petrol to sell Octane Involves heating a fraction, until they Vaporise
This is then passed over a CATALYST (a substance that speeds up a reaction)
Alkanes in the vapour break down to form smaller molecules in aThermal Decomposition reaction
Can also be broken down by mixing their own vapours with steam & heating to a very high temp Cracking Companies use cracking to break down bigger hydrocarbon molecules to smaller more useful molecules Ethanol (made from sugar cane) & Biodiesel (plant oils or animal fat)
Saturated Hydrocarbons with Single covalent bonds
A) C2H6 B) C3H8 C) C4H10
Smaller = Lower B.P
How easily something pours
Distillation (fractional)
Soot, a form of carbon. From Vehicle pollution
Carbon Dioxide + Water Answers /10 L.O
Explain how cracking makes useful products (E)

Identify the products of cracking reactions (C)

Identify an economic benefit of cracking reactions (A*) Cracking Crude Oil Explain how cracking makes useful products (E)

Identify the products of cracking reactions (C)

Identify an economic benefit of cracking reactions (A*) Out of 5 A family of hydrocarbons which are unsaturated
Alkenes have the general formula CnH2n Alkene Orange bromine water becomes colourless when it
reacts with ethene and other unsaturated compounds Fractional distillation of crude oil makes useful products including petrol. However sometimes the Supply doesn't match the demand Name 2 Biofuels
What are Alkanes?
What are the molecular formulas for a) Ethane b) Propane c) Butane? (3 marks)
How does molecule size effect Boiling point?
What does Viscous mean?
How is Crude oil separated?
What are particulates, and where do they come from?
Fuel + Oxygen ? + ? Out of 10
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