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Marine Biology History Timeline
Transcript of Marine Biology History Timeline
Marine Biology History Timeline
HMS Challenger- Sir Charles Wyvill Thomson
Spencer Fullerton Baird
Mid 18th Century
Aristotle identified a variety of marine species in his writings. These species include crustaceans, echinoderms, mullosks, and fish. He also recognized that marine vertebrates are either opivarous (eggs hatch outside the body) or viviparous (eggs hatch inside the body).
Aristotle's writings are the first specific references to marine life that were recorded. Because of this, he is often referred to as the father of marine biology.
A three year voyage led by Sir Charles Wyville Thomson collected and analyzed thousands of marine specimens from all of the oceans of the world. This voyage led to the discovery of the Mid-Atlantic Ridge
This voyage resulted in 30,000 pages of oceanographic information. It disproved Forbes' theory that life could not exist below 1,800 feet. It was the first systematic plot of currents and temperatures in the ocean.
Captain James Cook
Captain Cook took extensive voyages of discovery for the British Navy. During this time, he mapped much of the world's unchartered waters, and logged descriptions of numerous plans and animals. These species were unknown to most of mankind at the time.
Cook's voyages began the modern day study of marine biology. Because of Cook's explorations, a number of scientists because studying marine biology much more closely.
Spencer Fullerton Baird, the first director of the US Commission of Fish and Fisheries began a collection station in Woods Hole, Massachusetts in 1871. This laboratory still exists, known as the Northeast Fisheries Science Center.
This laboratory is the oldest fisheries research facility in the world.
The U.S. Fisheries Commission Steamer
, begins operations.
The Albatross is the first
vessel built by any government as an oceanographic research vessel from the keel up.
On April 15th, the White Star Liner Titanic sinks after striking an iceberg in the North Atlantic Ocean. The wreck killed several thousand people.
This disaster leads to a united effort to devise an acoustic means of discovering objects in the water, forward of the bow of a moving vessel.
Sylvia Earle leads four female aquanauts on an all-female expedition known as Tektite II, Mission 6. They lived underwater for two weeks.
This was the first ever all-female expedition. Sylvia Earle's work opened the doors for women to become actively involved in marine biology.
In 1977, scientists discovered seafloor vents gushing warm, mineral-rich fluid into the cold water at the depths of the Pacific Ocean. These became known as hydrothermal vents. Many are located along the Galapagos Rift.
On September 1, 1985, a team led by Dr. Robert Ballard discovered the
, the most famous shipwreck in modern history.
This marked an important day in marine history because it included the discovery of an ecosystem that is able to live without sunlight. These ecosystems rely on biota absorbing chemical energy from venting materials in a process called chemosynthesis.
The discovery of the
goes to prove the great lengths that deep sea diving has come. This field of marine science has made vast improvements in the past decades, making it possible to explore areas that were previously off limits.
This is the first attempt at forming a marine biology program using scuba for aquatic research.
Conrad Limbaugh forms a scientific diving team at Scripts Institution of Oceanography in California.