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Transcript of Qualitivate Procedures
and Interpretation Reliability, Validity, and Generalizability The Qualitative Write-Up Qualitative procedures demonstrate an alternate approach, "using philosophical assumptions;strategies of inquiry; methods of data collection, analysis, and interpretation." (Creswell, 2009) Review needs of audience
Present basic characteristics
Consider alternate lists of characteristics (natural settings, researchers as key instruments, multiple sources, inductive data analysis, participant's meanings, emergent design, theoretical lens, interpretive, holistic account) In writing a procedure:
• Identify the specific approach to inquiry
• Provide background information about your strategy
• Discuss it's appropriateness to the study
• Identify how the strategy will shape the types of questions asked • Include statements about past experience/background data for understanding topic
• Comment on connections between researcher/participants/research sites
• Indicate steps to obtain permission from the Institutional Review Board to protect rights
•Discuss steps to gain entry to setting and secure permission
• Finally, address comments about sensitive ethical issues • Identify the purposefully selected sites/individuals
• Indicate type(s) of data to be collected
Qualitative observations (notes on behavior and activities at site)
Qualitative interviews (conducts face-to-face interviews)
Qualitative documents (public, or private)
Qualitiative audio/visual materials
• Be specific about data collection forms
• Include data collection types beyond typical observations/interviews • Use a protocal for recording data (observational protocol)
• Use an interview protocol (heading, instructions, questions, probes, space, final thank you)
• Record information by handwritten notes/ audiotaping/videotaping
• Record based on notes structure. • Ongoing process w/continual reflection/analytical questions/written memos
• Collect open-ended data, ask general questions, develop analysis
• Collect qualitative data, analyze for themes/ perspectives, report 4-5 themes
• Use general procedure and convey in proposal steps taken Data Analysis in Quantitative Research
Step 1: Organize and prepare data for analysis
Step 2: Read through all the data
Step 3: Begin detailed analysis with a coding process
Step 4: Use a coding process to generate a description of the setting or people/categories or themes for analysis
Step 5: Advance how description/themes will be representated in the qualitiative narrative
Step 6: Make an interpretation/meaning of the data • Check transcripts for mistakes
• Watch for drift of definition of codes
• For team research, document meetings/share analysis
• Cross-check codes developed by different researchers by comparing results that are independently derived
• Triangulate different data sources by examining evidence to build a coherent justication for themes
• Use member checking through taking final report or specific descriptions or themes back to participants
• Use rich, thick description
• Clarify the bias the searcher brings
• Present negative or descrepant information
• Spend prolonged time in the field
• Use peer debriefing to enhance the accuracy
• Use an external auditor to review entire project
(Qualitative generalization vs. qualitiative specificity) • Use quotes/vary length
• Script conversations/report convesations in different languages
• Present text in tabular form
• Use wording from participants for codes and theme labels
• Intertwine questions with author's interpretations
• Use indents and formating to offset quotes
• Use first person in narrative form
• Use metaphors/analogies
• Use narrative approach
• Describe how narrative outcome will compare with theories and general literature Creswell, John W. 2009. Research design: Qualitative, Quantitative, and Mixed Method Approaches, Chapter 9, Qualitative Processes. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications. 260p. ISBN: 0761901442978-1-4129-6557-6 (pbk.), US TABLE 10.1A Checklist of Questions for Designing a Qualitative Procedure
Are the basic characteristics of qualitative studies mentioned?
Is the specific type of qualitative strategy of inquiry to be used in the study mentioned? Is the history of, a definition of, and applications for the strategy mentioned?
Does the reader gain an understanding of the researcher's role in the study (past experiences, personal connections to sites and people, steps in gaining entry, and sensitive ethical issues)?
Is the purposeful sampling strategy for sites and individuals identified?
Are the specific forms of data collection mentioned and a rationale given for their use?
Are the procedures for recording information (such as protocols) during the data collection procedure mentioned?
Are the data analysis steps identified?
Is there evidence that the researcher has organized the data for analysis?
Has the researcher reviewed the data generally to obtain a sense of the information?
Has coding been used with the data?
Have the codes been developed to form a description or to identify themes?
Are the themes interrelated to show a higher level of analysis and abstraction?
Are the ways that the data will be representedsuch as in tables, graphs, and figuresmentioned?
Have the bases for interpreting the analysis (personal experiences, the literature, questions, action agenda) been specified?
Has the researcher mentioned the outcome of the study? (develop a theory? provide a complex picture of themes?)
Have multiple strategies been cited for validating the findings?