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Conflict Resolutions

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Shantelle Holmes

on 23 May 2016

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Transcript of Conflict Resolutions


Introduction
Interpersonal
With another person
Values
Conflict can be perceived differently depending on individual experiences including culture, gender and sexuality.
These experiences impact on individual values and socialisation and influence approaches toward and willingness to engage in modes of conflict resolution.
(Toomey, Dorjee and Ting-Toomey, 2013)
Motivations
Motivations and desires for resolving interpersonal conflict can include:
A desire to satisfy interests or minimise suffering
Wishing to come to an agreement or settlement that is perceived as just.
Desires to enhance communication or repair relationship
(Moore, 1986)
(Deutsch & Coleman, 2000)
Perceptions
Conflict can cause stress. This stress can and impact on a person’s perceptions and communication and ability to resolve conflict.
Abilities and capacity to listen, hear what another is saying or feeling and be aware of own non verbal communication and needs are impacted by stress. (Segal & Smith 2016)

Ideas
Interpersonal Conflict can be seen as an opportunity to learn, or something to avoid.
Different beliefs, values and competitive or cooperative approaches have an impact on openness to resolution, beliefs on resolution and openness to engage an external mediator.
(Deutsch & Coleman, 2000)

Desired
outcome
Our desire to be accommodated, have our needs met, achieve our goals, look after our interest or to find compromise are instrumental in resolving conflict.
Conflict resolution strategies may be used to prevent conflict escalating, manage or de-escalate conflict or to resolve differences and transform them into cooperative relationships
(Oetzel and Ting-Toomey, 2006)
Values
Values of individuals within a group play an important part in the group's productivity and performance.
Team values such as communication, respect for different points of view and a willingness to resolve conflict immediately are some of the values needed for effective conflict resolution in a team.
(Jehn & Mannix, 2001)
Motivations
With the onslaught of the digital age and teaching models leaning towards the social constructivist model, collaboration and teamwork is becoming more highly valued than ever before in many different arenas. The outcome from a well functioning team can far surpass the outcome from an individual.
When a team oversteps the mark of healthy differences of opinion, resolving conflict requires respect and patience. The human experience of conflict involves our emotions, perceptions, and actions; we experience it on all three levels, and we need to address all three levels to resolve it.

("Mind Tools: Online Management, Leadership and Career Training", 2016)(Institute for the future, 2011)
Perceptions
Relationship conflict involves personal issues and dislike amongst members towards each other, resulting in members experiencing feelings of annoyance, frustration and irritation. Studies have found that high performing groups will have low levels of relationship conflict throughout all phases of group interaction. ("Mind Tools: Online Management, Leadership and Career Training", 2016)
Ideas
Understanding and appreciating the various viewpoints involved in conflict are key factors in its resolution. Acknowledging the conflict by all members, discussing the impact it is having on team performance and then agreeing to a cooperative process including open communication and active listening has to be the team's goal. If any individual puts their own stuff before this then outside mediation or negotiation may be needed. The important thing is to maintain a healthy balance of constructive difference of opinion and avoid negative conflict that is destructive and disruptive.
(Jehn & Mannix, 2001)
Desired
outcome
Conflict can be constructive as long as it is managed and dealt with directly and quickly. By respecting differences between people, being able to resolve conflict when it does happen and also working to prevent it; you will be able to maintain a healthy and creative team atmosphere. The key is to remain open to other people's ideas, beliefs, and assumptions. When team members learn to see issues from the other side, it opens up new ways of thinking, which can lead to new and innovative solutions, and healthy team performance.
(Jehn & Mannix, 2001)

Values
Conflict occurs when there are different interests, controlling attitudes or behaviours. Incompatibilities at a group level or process also plays a part in intergroup conflict. A group's identity will influence how the group interacts with other groups in the working environment.
(Fisher, 2005)
Motivations
To stop intergroup conflict third party intervention is usually necessary, steps taken may include change in subjective relationships and change in objective structures and systems. The third party will need to identify both groups issues, values and goals and gain trust from both parties. Both groups need to feel equal. (Fisher, 2011)
Perceptions
Groups may perceive each other as being inferior or incompetent. Groups may also feel like the other group is stopping them from achieving their goals. Due to the difference between their goals and the other groups. (Fisher, 2005)
When working in a workplace with groups have all groups come together for a big group activity. Working together as a team and not as groups may reduce conflict, or have task set out where groups have to bond with other groups and work together as a whole.
(Borek, 2011)
Desired
outcome
Have all teams working together as ether a whole or on equal grounds. All team members need to feel equal.
(Borek, 2011)

Intergroup
(different
teams)
Online
Values
Conflict occurs when two or more people have different views on moral values. The basic understanding of what is right or wrong. Relationship and value conflicts that occur online because they are based totally on what someone "feels" about a person, statement or situation (Munro, 2002).
Motivations
To stop the conflict stages occurring we must first understand with online communication conflicts. That there are limitations with the way our text is read, displayed and written. That tension, misunderstanding, discomforts and incidents (Crana, 2011) do happen and that by using feeling statement and chooseing your words carefully and thoughtfully you will defuse a conflicting situation. As well as when communicating online, the visual and hearing cues that we rely on so much for conflict resolutions and communication are not so easily attainable (Munro, 2002).
Perceptions
All of our communications, online and in real-time, are filled with projections. We perceive the world through our expectations, needs, desires, fantasies, and feelings, and we project those onto other people. We are more likely to project when we are online precisely because we don't have the visual or auditory cues to guide us in our interpretations. How we hear an email or post is how we hear it in our own heads, which may or may not reflect the tone or attitude of the sender (Munro, 2002).
Ideas
When working online vote and come up with different jobs for each person using their skill set. Use these skills with these positive ideas to resolve conflict. Three positive ideas for this are: to place yourself in the other person's shoes, to avoid unwanted conflict with others you are communicating with by using positive start and finish with statements. Another is to give time between a response and reply which allows you to think about what the other person has typed and how they mean what they type. And to help express your tone you can add emoticons to your words to give a better view of how you feel (Munro, 2002).
Desired
outcome
The tip to remember is that it is our choice whether we make our experiences online a positive or negative one. But you have to make a positive effort when communicating online as it can be used to increase personal development and relationships or it could end in conflict just as easily (Munro, 2002).
Conclusion
References
Ideas
Borek, l. (2011). Team performance Management. Retrieved from Pro-Quest: http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy.lib.swin.edu.au/docview/900084629?accountid=14205&rfr_id=info%3Axri%2Fsid%3Aprimo

Conflict and Negotiation. (2016). Retrieved May 16, 2016, from http://highered.mheducation.com/sites/0070876959/student_view0/chapter9/index.html

Crana,. (2011). Stages of Conflict Development (1st ed.). Remote Health Counts. Retrieved from https://crana.org.au/uploads/pdfs/Other_45.pdf

Deutsch, M. & Coleman, P. (2000). The handbook of conflict resolution. San Francisco, Calif.: Jossey-Bass.

Fisher, R. (2005). Intergroup Conflict. Colorado.edu. Retrieved 18 May 2016, from http://www.colorado.edu/conflict/peace/example/fishint.htm

Fisher, R. (2011). Methods of Third-Party intervention. berghof-foundation. Retrieved 18 May 2016, from http://www.berghof-foundation.org/fileadmin/redaktion/Publications/Handbook/Articles/fisher_handbookII.pdf

Institute for the Future. (2011). Future Work Skills 2020. Retrieved 14 May 2016, from http://www.iftf.org/uploads/media/SR-1382A_UPRI_future_work_skills_sm.pdf

Karen A.Jehn, E. A. (2001). The Dynamic Nature of conflict:A longitudinal study of intra group conflict and group performance. Academy of management journal , 238-251.

Kenny, N. (2012). Interpersonal Conflict in the Workplace. Examiner.com. Retrieved 17 May 2016, from http://www.examiner.com/article/interpersonal-conflict-the-workplace

Marin, J. (2014). Keys to managing conflict at work. Linked in. Retrieved 13 May 2016, from https://www.linkedin.com/pulse/20140601092517-117874168-how-to-give-the-flic-to-conflict

Mind Tools Editorial Team,. (2016). Resolving team Conflict. Mindtools. Retrieved 14 May 2016, from http://ttp://www.mindtools.com/resolving team conflict/htm
Moore, C. (1986). The mediation process. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Munro, K. (2002). Psychology of Cyberspace - How to Resolve Conflict Online. Users.rider.edu. Retrieved 12 May 2016, from http://users.rider.edu/~suler/psycyber/conflict.html

Oetzel, J. and Ting-Toomey, S. (2006). The SAGE handbook of conflict communication. Thousand Oaks, Calif.: Sage Publication

Petrkurgan,. (2016). Green key of the computer. Solutions.. Thumbs.dreamstime.com. Retrieved 13 May 2016, from http://thumbs.dreamstime.com/x/finding-solution-problem-conflict-button-computer-internet-52685193.jpg

Ronald J. Fisher. "Intergroup Conflict." Morton Deutsch and Peter T. Coleman, eds.,
The Handbook of Conflict Resolution: Theory and Practice
San Francisco: Jossey-Bas Publishers, 2000, pp. 166-184

Segal, J. & Smith, M. (2016). Conflict Resolution Skills: Building the Skills That Can Turn Conflicts into Opportunities. Helpguide.org. Retrieved 11 May 2016, from http://www.helpguide.org/articles/relationships/conflict-resolution-skills.htm

Soon, W. (2014). How to Deal with Conflict in REMOTE teams. Vorkspace.com. Retrieved 17 May 2016, from http://vorkspace.com/blog/index.php/how-to-deal-with-conflict-in-remote-teams/

Toomey, A., Dorjee, T. and Ting-Toomey, S. (2013). Bicultural Identity Negotiation, Conflicts, and Intergroup Communication Strategies. Journal of Intercultural Communication Research, 42(2), pp.112-134,s

Weikzhe, P. (2013). ES2007: Professional Communication: Post #2: Resolving Interpersonal Conflict. Weizhe-withoutwalls.blogspot.com.au. Retrieved 17 May 2016, from http://weizhe-withoutwalls.blogspot.com.au/2013/02/post-2-resolving-interpersonal-conflict.html

Conflict arises from differences, both large and small. It occurs whenever people disagree over their values, motivations, perceptions, ideas, or desires.

Conflict and conflict resolution can provide opportunities for discussion, growth and learning. Conflict can contribute to formations of teams, interpersonal relationships and online communication.

Regardless of whether the stage and situation conflict occurs is online, interpersonal or within teams; during phases of conflict different values, perceptions, ideas, motivations, desired outcomes and expectations can impact on understanding, communication and resolution.

Conflict resolution strategies may be used to prevent conflict escalating, manage or de-escalate conflict or to resolve differences and transform them into cooperative relationships.
(Marin, 2014)
In conclusion we have discussed conflict resolution in the inter-personal, online, intra-team and inter-team arenas.
We have found that conflict itself can have a profound effect, both negative and positive, on individuals and on team outcomes.
Conflict can tie people in knots, like a pretzel and make it seem like there is no beginning or ending to the conflict.
However in all arenas where conflict arises, open communication, active listening, empathy and respect are essential and make conflict resolution possible.
Enjoy your pretzels for they are only opportunities for growth !
Conflict Resolutions
(Weikzhe, 2013)
(Soon, 2014)
(Petrkurgan, 2016)
Intragroup
(within team)
(Kenny, 2012)
Full transcript