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Sport Science Proposal
Transcript of Sport Science Proposal
To identify the key demands for the sport (football) within the four different scientific fields.
To then research several field measures for the range of disciplines, and to highlight which field measures are most appropriate to football.
We will be using theoretical concepts to enforce our findings and show you why as a coach our multidisciplinary team will be highly beneficial to you.
Physiological Demands In Football
Sport Science Proposal
Team cohesion. why is it a key demand
Cohesion is defined as a tendency of a group to stick together, forge social bonds and remain united in the pursuit of goals
“analysis indicates a strong relationship between cohesion and success”
(Carron,A. Bray,S. & Eys,M. 2002)
Actual productivity = potential productivity – faulty processes
- A break down in team work can occur because the effectiveness of the group as a unit cant be sustained .
– relates to a individuals decrease in motivation during
(Weinberg,R. & Gould,D. 2010)
Key Demands -
(Carron,A., Shapcott,k.& Burke,S. 2007)
-Use the Group Environment questionnaire (GEQ)
-A wealth of studies use The GEQ questionnaire as a measurement of team cohesion
-research shows it to be a valid measurement
-measures key demands
-why is it a better field measure then alternatives
"The GEQ is certainly the most used questionnaire for assessing team cohesion"
(Steca, P. et al., 2013) (Carron,A., Shapcott,k.& Burke,S. 2007) (Slater & Sewell 1994)
What will I do with the results
Putting in into a game situation
Evaluation of a players performance can result in a reduction of the faulty processes (Høigaard,R. & Ingvaldsen,R. 2006)
to be a accurate measure of distance traveled (Coutts,A. & Duffeild,R. 2010)
-The average - the average players travels 9-14km per game .(Bangsboa,J. Mohra,M. & Krustrup,P 2006)
-Their position (Di valvio,V. et al.,2007)
-Taking into account the individual
Communicate with other sports science disciplines
Punishing non team members by dropping them
-Attribution to team cohesion
-reinforcement of team cohesion
1. Aerobic Capacity
1. Aerobic Capacity
Elite players cover 9 to 14 km in 90 mins (Njororai, 2010).
“intermittent exercise with bouts of short, intense activity punctuating longer periods of low level, moderate-intensity exercise” (Reilly, 1997, p. 257).
It has been estimated that aerobic metabolism provides 90% of the energy required for a match (McMillan et al., 2004).
Improved aerobic endurance linked to improved physical performance (Wong et al., 2011).
Relevance of aerobic fitness in Football confirmed by multiple studies (Castanga et al., 2006).
Yo-Yo Intermittent Test
The Yo-Yo intermittent test is used to assess aerobic endurance performance in soccer players (Wong, et al., 2011).
Research found that CB, WB & midfielders had a higher Yo–Yo test performance than CF (Bradley et al., 2011).
Using the Yo-Yo test we can obtain pre season, during season and post season scores for the players.
Results can be compared to normative data in each position to ensure the players are at an appropriate aerobic endurance level for their needs.
Normative data shows that male top-class players, playing at international level, achieved results of 2420m (Bangsbo et al., 2008).
High speed actions contribute directly to winning possession and to scoring or conceding of goals. (Reilly et al., 2000).
Bloomfield et al. (2007) suggested that defenders and strikers could benefit from agility type conditioning.
Agility is also regarded as a ‘critical technical skill & a main component of soccer’ (Kutlu et al., 2012, p .143).
Individual players performed the equivalent of 726 ± 203 turns during a single match.
609 ± 193 of them were 0° to 90° turns (Bloomfield et al., 2007).
Illinois Agility Test
The Illinois agility test (IAT) is used by scientists measuring agility levels of Football players (Vàczi et al., 2013).
The IAT has shown to have a high intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) between repeated trials of several different agility tests (Vescovi et al., 2011).
The illinois agility test can be used to obtain pre season, during season and post season scores.
Results can be compared to normative data of other players in each position to ensure the players are at an appropriate agility level for their positional needs.
Normative values for males in the illinois agility test are anything under 15.2 seconds is excellent (Davis et al., 2004).
Body Composition and Position Specific Diet
Skin Fold Calipers
The frequently found values for total distance covered in a game of about 10km and an above-average, though not outstanding, maximum oxygen uptake of 60 ml/kg/min suggest a moderate overall aerobic demand. Tumility, D. (1993)
Body composition, anthropometric dimensions, and morphological characteristics play a vital role in determining the success of a soccer player (Keogh, 1999; Silvestre, West, Maresh, & Kraemer, 2006).
-An instrument used to measure the breadth of a fold of skin
-Can be transported easily, allows for testing any time any place
-Fast, Easy to administer (Clip)
-Although the differences between the BOD POD® and the SF- DXA equation were statistically significant, it is unlikely that these differences were large enough to suggest a meaningful difference. Fruth et al (2008)
The results show that the keepers' running velocity at AT (7.9 ± 1.1 km/h) was significantly (p ≤ 0.05) lower than that of the midfielders (10.0 ± 0.6 km/h) or the attackers (9.3 ± 1.1 km/h) (Dillern et al. 2008)
-Alternative Method - Bod Pod; Expensive - £40,000 per Unit, £50 per Use
-Cant be transported to games/training camps
Diet Diary and
-Endurance performance and endurance capacity are largely dictated by endogenous carbohydrate availability. Cermak and Loon (2013)
-Protein recommendations for endurance athletes are 1.2 to 1.4 g/kg body weight per day. Phillips et al. (2007)
The Harris-Benedict equation calculates REE as follows:
66.5 + (13.75 x weight in kg) + (5.0 x height in cm) - (6.78 x age in years) = REE
Little/no strenuous activity = REE x 1.6-1.7
Moderate strenuous activity = REE x 1.8-1.9
Heavy strenuous activity = REE x 2.1-2.4
For kicks to be successful, mainly during attacking play, they need to be accurate and powerful thus outwitting the goalkeeper (Majelan, A. 2011) and also the defensive team
Kicking the ball in football, is the defining action of the game. (Lees, A. et al.2010) It can win a match with a crucial long field pass for an attacker to run on to, or it could be a vital clearance in the last minute.
Many suggest maximal ball speed has been accepted to be the main biomechanical indicator of kicking success, However Sterzing, T. (2011) suggests accuracy is more important. Due to its application in passing and shooting throughout the game.
Force Plate Analysis
Harry Stent and Christina Lal
Individualized Zone of Optimal Functioning
a sprint occurs approximately every 70 seconds, lasting an average of 2–4 seconds (Stølen, T. et al 2005)
Muscular power and strength are both vital in a football match. Players are required to perform numerous jumps, kicks and short sprints
In a full match average statistics per player:
50 involvements with the ball.
Average of 30 passes.
Along with changes of pace to find space etc.using forceful muscular contractions
Power is known as the largest force the body can create through the neuromuscular system, in the quickest possible time (Amusa and Toriola 2003).
Numerous uses of explosive power are required in football, including
kicking, tackling, turning, sprinting, changing pace,
and sustaining forceful contractions to
control of the ball
against defensive pressure (Stølen, T. 2005)
Mohr et al (2003) concluded that attackers and fullbacks sprinted significantly more than midfielders and centrebacks
For measurements to be highly accurate and precise a
should be used to assess the vertical jump height and thus the players power.
Jumping heights (with freely moving arms) averaged in professionals from 47.8 to 60.1cm, however the usual test uses hands on hips.
Stølen, T (2005) States that there is a very close relationship between vertical jump height and performance in the league.
Psychological Demands of Football
- A study by O'Broin and Palmer (2009) showed how this intervention positively effected the coach and player relationship, as well as increases in hope, goal striving and well being (Oades, Grant and Green, 2006)
Test 1: Stress Inoculation Training
-Results have shown that the ingestion of a low GI carbohydrate meal 2 hours before exercise can have a beneficial effect on performance. Wong et al (2008)
- Stress Inoculation Training (SIT) integrates "the research on the role of cognitive and affective factors in coping processes with the emerging technology of cognitive behaviour modification". This particular training intervention is used to help players cope with their exposure to any ongoing stressors during their match game (Meichenbaum, 1977)
- The whole process includes a three phase intervention - the first phase "conceptualisation" creates a relationship between the clients and the trainer. The second phase of SIT focuses on "skills acquisition and rehearsal". The coping skills are practiced in the clinic or training setting. The final phase is "application and follow through" and provides opportunities for the clients to apply their coping skills across increasing levels of stressors, which include imagery rehearsal.
(Fremouw & Harinatz, 1975).
-Mohr et al (2010) observed a 2.6% decrease in repeated sprint performance and an 8.2% decrease in jump performance after a game in which 2% of the body mass was lost.
Results showed that soccer players have a higher lean mass and lower fat mass than controls. Arroyo et al. (2008)
Dartfish analyzer tool allows you to focus on many aspects of performance.
measure angles between joints in all players. This allows you to see possible limits of range due to things such as lack of flexibility. this could therfore be limiting factors to weakness in power and accuracy.
There are many other tools in dartfish that could also allow you to focus on foot contact and comparisons between players using SIMULCAM.
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1. Effect of Arousal on Sports Performance
- According to the optimum arousal theory, individuals perform better if their level of arousal falls within their optimal functioning zone. Hanin (2007) found that all elite players have a zone of optimal anxiety of where they perform best. Coaches therefore have to determine which optimum level the player is at so the appropriate techniques can be used to enhance the players performance (Crane and Hannibal, 2009).
- To enhance sporting performance, the player must accept any anxiety symptoms and overcome them. If players are too under/over aroused, they will perform in a negative way both somatically and cognitively. (Gallwey, 2000)
- Players can employ increased anxiety levels which would also affect them physiologically, for example; increased heart rates, nervousness, lack of concentration (Crane & Hannibal, 2009)