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Transcript of Haiti
Payton Lenhart and Morgan Wilson
15 to 24 years of age-
15 years and older-
The Duvalier family
- Francois Duvalier "Papa Doc" president of Haiti from 1957-1971. Jean-Claude Duvalier "Baby Doc" son of Francois who was president from 1971-1986.
- Visited in 1980, sparked a revolution in which the people of Haiti decided to over throw the Duvalier family.There was a mass mobilization to protest against the military and the Duvalierist rule, which demanded fundamental, social, and political change. The people of Haiti most wanted free democratic elections along with the overthrow of the Duvaliers.
Jean- Bertrand Aristide
- Elected in 1990, first elected predisent. “Tout moun se moun,” “Everybody is Somebody.” gained his popularity among the poor in Haiti, with his speeches telling the people to liberate themselves from poverty. Aristide was born in 1953 in Port Salut in the South West. He was elected by the Salesian and ordained a priest in 1982. He was appointed priest of the Saint John Bosco in La Saline. He was eventually exiled and spent most of his three years in Washington DC where he focused on gaining the diplomatic support of the Clinton Administration. No party has been able to fully establish itself and gain a large membership since the fall of the Duvalier rule and Jean-Bertrand. The main party in the PPL coalition was the Lavalas Political Organization (OPL), which is lead by former communist, now social democrat, Gerard-Pierre Charles. The OPL decided to withdrawal, soon after began the political dead lock that lasted three years. In this time span, many parties were created and thought of but none established, until 1998 when the International Republican Institute was able to untie 26 different parties. Michel Martelly rules by decree until his mandate runs out at the end of next year.
Industries- Sugar refining, flour milling, textiles, cement, light assembly based on imported parts
Exports- $876.8 million
Imports- $2.697 billion
Top Export partners- United States (81.7%)
Top Import partners- Dominican Republic(34.5%), United States(26.2%), Netherlands Antilles(9.4%), China(7%)
Top Exports- apparel, manufacturers, oils, cocoa, mangoes, coffee
Top Imports- food, manufactured goods, machinery and transport equipment, fuels, raw materials
Debt- $1.118 billion
Children in Haiti are required to attend school for 6 years, from the ages of 6 to 11, although this effectively amounts to a dead letter in Haiti, where some estimates placed enrollment levels at less than 50 percent prior to the earthquake. Education is not free in most of the country, and although Haitians value education highly, the costs are unbearable for most families. A mere fraction of all Haitian primary schools are publicly operated, with estimates ranging between 10 and 20 percent, with the rest being private schools run by foreign governments, non-governmental organizations, religious organizations, and communities.
Ethnic Groups and Languages
Ethnic Groups- Black(95%),
Mulatto and White(5%)
Languages- French and Creole
Creole is the language of instruction in primary schools, but French is the language of secondary education, commerce, and politics.
Comfortable, lightweight Western-style clothes, often made of cotton and linen fabrics, are typically worn in Haiti. School children all wear uniforms. Men often wear a loose-fitting shirt called a guayabera, similar to other countries in the region and in Latin America. While it is acceptable for women to wear pants, most women, especially in rural areas, continue to wear skirts or dresses.
The traditional folk costume for men is a hand-embroidered shirt made of cotton, linen, or denim fabric. Women traditionally wear an embroidered short-sleeved blouse, a colorful skirt, and a scarf wrapped around their hair.
The traditional folk costume for men is a hand-embroidered shirt made of cotton, linen, or denim fabric. Women traditionally wear an embroidered short-sleeved blouse, a colorful skirt, and a scarf wrapped around their hair
Traditional Dress in Haiti
Art is extremely important to Haitian culture. Making an otherwise poor country rich in art from sequin flags, to murals, to iron work, etc.
In the mid 1950s U.S Americans built the Center d'Art in Port-au-Prince. This is where untrained haitian artist were encouraged to develop their talents and it is where the marketing of Haitian creativity began.
In the late 1980s-early 1990s sequin flags depicting Vodou spirits produced in the Bel Air district of Port-au-Prince became the latest Haitian art form desired by many foreign buyers.
Famous Artist from Haiti
- Vodou priest from Gonaives, joined the Center d'Art and the commercial success of his canvases inspired a plethora of painters using a simple, almost child-like styles, usually without the use of perspective. Their paintings have made Haiti world- famous as a source of "naive" or primitive art.
- a blacksmith from Croix-des-Bouquets, he began working on decrotive metal sculptures in the early 1950s, and the popularity of his work with foreign buyers inspired his neighbors to follow suit. Today, Croix-des-Bouquets is home to many artist who make sculptures out of old metal oil drums. The sculptures are usually representations of mermaids, snakes, dragons, angels, devils, and etc.
230,000--316,000: estimates of the death toll vary.
300,000: number of injured
1.5 million: people initially displaced
85,432: displaced people remain in 123 sites as of September 2014
4,992: number of schools in Haiti affected by earthquake. Equals 23% of schools.
More than 1,000: Haitian orphans adopted in the United States with assistance from the Help Haiti Act (as of December 2010)
8,592: deaths due to cholera (as of August 30, 2014)
706,089: suspected cholera cases since the outbreak in October 2010 (as of August 30, 2014)
Response in Dollars
$13.34 billion: aid allocated by multilateral and bilateral agencies for 2010-2020 to Haiti for relief and recovery efforts, according to the United Nations Office of the Special Envoy for Haiti
$6.43 billion: of the allocated $13.34 billion, amount of aid disbursed by multilaterals and bilaterals from 2010-2012
$9.49 billion: total aid disbursed from 2010-2012 by multilaterals and bilaterals ($6.43 billion) and UN agencies and NGOs by private donors ($3.06 billion)
More than $4 billion: aid committed to Haiti by the U.S. Government
$3.1 billion: of the committed $4 billion, amount of aid disbursed by the U.S. Government (as of September 30, 2014)
$44 million: total USAID support for prevention and response to cholera
$381.8 million: Received by trustees from a total of $396.1 million in pledges to the international Haiti Reconstruction Fund as of March 31, 2014.
Effect on Foreigners
96: Death Toll of U.N. peacekeepers
122: Americans confirmed dead
The Earthquake was a 7 on the Richter Scale
"Haiti Earthquake Fast Facts - CNN.com." CNN. Cable News Network, n.d. Web. 02 Sept. 2015
Cholera-an infectious and often fatal bacterial disease of the small intestine, typically contracted from infected water supplies
Urban families might have three or four children, while rural families have ten or more. The basic unit of society is the extended family. Grandparents may act as parents in place of an absent or working mother or father. Relatives may also fill the role of godparent, which entails responsibility for a child if a parent dies. Children from cities may be sent to live with relatives in the countryside during summer vacations, and children from the countryside may be sent to live with relatives in cities to attend school.
Adult children are expected to remain living with their parents until they get married.
Occasionally, married children live with one spouse’s parents until they can afford a home of their own. Married couples usually live close to their families. This is especially true in the countryside, where the traditional “lakou” form of housing (a common courtyard surrounded by a family compound of small sleeping rooms) is prevalent.
In urban areas, the father, if present in the home, is head of the household and responsible for earning an income. Mothers are responsible for cooking, cleaning, and teaching their children religion and morality. Middle-class urban families may have a servant to cook and do other chores. Rural men work their fields, while women sell produce in the market and care for the household and children. Though men may earn the money and make decisions, it is often the women who manage the household’s money. Single-mother households are very common, as men typically have children by more than one woman. In such households, mothers often rely on older children and relatives to help earn income and to care for younger children. In most families, a child's main concerns are succeeding in school and completing household chores
The Brice Foundation
The Brice Foundation is a nonprofit organization created in September 2011
Its goal is to improve poverty by raising the literacy rate in countries across the world.
They give grants, awards, and scholarships to people in developing countries who wish to further their education so that they can come back and improve their community.
The Brice Foundation also develops projects that can bring about solid and positive changes within the society socially, professionally and economically, and then concretize them.
"Brice Foundation International." Brice Foundation International. N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Sept. 2015.
"Haitians." Junior Worldmark Encyclopedia of World Cultures. 1999, Robert Lawless, and "Haitians." Encyclopedia of World Cultures. 1996. "Haitians." Encyclopedia.com. HighBeam Research, 01 Jan. 1999. Web. 02 Sept. 2015
N.p., n.d. Web. 02 Sept. 2015
Central Intelligence Agency. Central Intelligence Agency, n.d. Web. 02 Sept. 2015
54.7%- Roman Catholic
3%- Seventh- Day Adventist
And more then half the population practices Voodoo
The results do not differ much except that now 1% are Methodists, and 2% are voodoo.(As their only religion, many practice voodoo along with another religion)
Voodoo, unlike Christianity, recognizes one supreme God plus a large quantity of deities and saints, who speak to the followers through dreams, trances, and ritual possessions, A large wave of Protestant missionary work poured into Haiti in the past forty years, which eventually led to the decline of Catholicism. Mob violence is unfortunately very popular against voodoo practitioners and women especially in the rural areas of Haiti. In society, the Catholic priests and voodoo clergy have a high standing authority. In voodoo, the highest in clerical standing is the “hougan, a “boko” performs spiritual works on paying clients, and a “gangan” is the lowest shaman who at some point failed in the becoming of a “hougan.” Haiti celebrates all of the same religious Holidays as the United States does such as Christmas and Easter. In 1987 the Constitution granted freedom of all Faiths and equality between all religions. Though there are no religious regulations for guests, there is a higher chance for hate crimes to happen while visiting Haiti if you express your difference in religious beliefs to some of them.
- fried green Plantains
- traditionally a Sunday soup, this is made with meat when available, potatoes, plantains, celery and other vegetables
Haricots Rouges Au Riz
- red beans and rice usually flavored with lard, and when available, other meats and spices
- sweet potato pudding, usually includes bananas and some raisins, spiced with cinnamon, ginger, or nutmeg and is served hot or cold
- commonly consumed at festivals, parties, or with meals, light beers are the most popular
Haiti follows the Caribbean cuisine more so than any other cuisine. In the country, sweet potatoes, cassava, yams, corn, pigeon peas, and cow peas are common foods. Bread and coffee are common throughout the country.
Music for the Gods, Rara is an Afro-Haitian genre of music with incredibly close ties to the frequently misunderstood religion of vodoun. The music is used to celebrate, as well as a form of festival music. It was likely developed during the era of slavery, and unlike genres that began to emerge later in the country’s rich history, started the use of Haitian instruments. Although the music celebrates Haiti’s African ancestry, it is generally performed during the Christian period of Lent, beginning on Ash Wednesday and lasts until the start of Easter
Kompa is the most popular Haitian genre of music. The genre was popularized by saxophonist Nemours Jean-Baptiste in the 1950s, and is considered a derivative of the Haitian version of meringue. As with rara, most of the lyrics are sung in Haitian Kreyol. The emergence of kompa signaled a transition from traditional folk music to more of a pop sound. The music is recognized by its medium-to-fast tempos that are similar to but slower than meringue beats. The sound was influenced by calypso, salsa, soca, and soukous. It combined elements of European ballroom-dancing music as its base; later the sound went on to incorporate sounds of jazz, swing, and big band. Meringue, Haiti’s national music, predates and inspired kompa. It is related both musically and historically to the merengue found in neighboring Dominican Republic
However, Haiti's merengue is guitar-based rather than accordion-based as in the Dominican Republic. This popular, acoustic dance music is usually sung in Haitian Kreyol with varying tempos. Slow meringue shows influences from Cuban danza, whereas fast merengue incorporates African and Creole elements. Kadan is a French-Creole genre typically played by small jazz ensembles. The music developed during the 1970s amid the political turmoil surrounding the dictatorship of Duvalier that drove many Haitians to flee to Martinique and Guadeloupe. The sound is characterized by an unrelenting beat accentuated by cymbals with a rhythm reminiscent of meringue. Early lyrical themes focused on significant issues like slavery and cultural identity.
is played by striking it with a stick and blowing through it, buzzing the lips as you would with a normal trumpet. Each bamboo trumpet is cut to different lengths, to produce a range of notes that each player creates to form a polyphonic rhythm.
Haiti was inhabited by the Native American tribe Arawak, and in 1492 when Christopher Columbus arrived, he named it Hispaniola, and gold was prevalent in the Eastern region. When Christopher's men found this, it brought prospectors onto the land and eventually led to the subjugation of the Natives. By the year 1697 the French took control of the Western half of Haiti by building sugar, spice, and coffee plantations. In 1540 the genocide of the Natives was more or less complete, depleting the Native population to next to nothing, A large scale of slaves from West Africa soon began. By 1720 47,000 or more black African slaves lived in the French colony. Soon after all of the slavery and building up of the “Frances Pearl of the Antilles,” the Slaves rose up in rebellion and fought against the European armies for a whole twelve years, this was the first and only successful slave revolution. Haiti was ruled by the Duvalier family for 30 years. The United States recognized Haiti's independence in 1862, and in 1915, President Woodrow Wilson began United States assistance and Occupation in Haiti. Marines began to force Haitian peasants into labor gangs to carry out publics jobs, like road building.In the mid 1980’s, an increasingly poverty stricken population was influenced by the liberation theology branch of the Catholic Church, and started to organize against dictatorship. In January of 2011, an Earthquake that registered as a 7.0 magnitude on the richter scale hit Haiti. This devastating natural disaster left an estimated 300,000 civilians dead, by 2011 Cholera hit Haiti while they were still trying to come back from the tragic Earthquake only a year earlier. Cholera affected many and claimed around 6,000 to death.
Haricots Rouges Au Riz
Arthur, Charles. Haiti in Focus: A Guide to the People, Politics & Culture. Brooklyn, NY: Interlink, 2001
January 12, 2010