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Logic

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Aleksei Smith

on 12 May 2014

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Transcript of Logic

Analogies Using Synonyms
Analogies using Antonyms
Analogies Using Homonyms

A Homonym is a group of words that share the same spelling and the same pronunciation but have different meanings.
For example,
to bore
(is to cause someone to lose interest) is a homonym for
to bore
(to drill a hole).
Other examples include:
"bill(an amount of money owed)is to bill(the mouth of a duck)"
"read is to read(past tense)"
Analogies Using Categories/Subcategories
Analogies Using Whole/Part
Some analogies compare
PART
of something to its
WHOLE
(or they might compare something
WHOLE
to its
PART
).
Here's an example of a
PART
to
WHOLE
analogy: "Leg:Chair::Shade:Lamp." An example of
whole
to
part
would be "Class:Students::House:Room"

Analogies
An analogy is a comparison between two things.
For example:
"as caterpillar is to cocoon, child is to womb." This analogy compares new beginnings in life; the child is being brought into the world and the caterpillar has a fresh start at life.
"You are as annoying as nails on a chalkboard."
Analogies can also be written a different way such as the one shown below.
"Truck:Transport::Oven:Bake."
Logic
Analogies Using Functions
Analogies Using Verb Forms
Analogies Using Rhymes
Analogies Using Scrambled Words
Analogies Using Homophones
False Premise
By: Morgan Delaney,Lainey Hobbs, and Aleksei Smith
One way analogies are set up is using synonyms.
For example:
"Twelve:Dozen::Three:Trio"
"Infant:Baby::Grown up:Adult:"
"Happy:Content::Mournful:Sorrowful."
In the following analogies,the relationship between the words has to do with the similarities in their definitions.
Another way analogies can be set up is by using antonyms. The relationship between the words has to do with the differences in their definitions.
Here are some examples of antonyms found in analogies:
"Attack:Defend::Conquer: Surrender"
"Admit:Deny::Innocent:Guilty
"Fact:Opinion::False:True."

*Fact is the opposite of opinion, just as false is the opposite of true.*



Categories and subcategories in analogies compare a broad topic to a specific one.
An example would be "Fruit is to Banana as Vegetable is to carrot."
Fruits and vegetables could be a variety of foods while bananas and carrots narrow the topic.
Other examples:
"Subjects:Science::School supplies:pencils."
"Mammals:Dogs::Birds:Bluejay."
"Minerals:Quartz::Rock: Sedimentary."
Examples of whole to part:
"beach:sand::ocean:water"
"pencil:lead::coconut:milk"
"tail:dog::ceiling:room"
Examples of part to whole:
"wheel:car::branch:tree"
"leg:body::ink:pen"
"room:house::zipper:jacket"
In this kind of analogy, one of the words will help the other word carry out an action.In the example," Knife:slice::ball:bounce" you should think,"A knife slices and a ball bounces."
Other examples:
"towel:dry::pen:write"
"truck:transport:oven:bake"
"leg:walk::duck:quack"

This type of analogy compares a word to past tense.In the example,"walk:walked::eat:ate", you should think,"the past tense of walk is walked, and the past tense of eat is ate."
Other examples:
"sit:sat::play:played"
"run:ran:work:worked"
"think:thought::kick:kicked"
Homophones are words that sound alike but have different meanings.
More familiar homophones include:
to, too, two; their, there, they're; and its, it's.
An example of an analogy that includes homophones would be,"tail:tale::mail:male"
In this analogy,the first pair of words sound the same but are spelled differently.

Other examples:
"so:sew::no:know"
"would:wood::dye:die"
"hear:here::deer:dear"
In this type of analogy, you are shown a word that is scrambled, (trsat) and you must unscramble the word to complete the analogy. "Win:Loose:Stop:_____" Now that you are presented with the analogy, find the relationship between the shown pair of words. (In this case, the relationship is antonyms.) With the given scrambled word,(trsat) find a word that completes the analogy correctly using the letters. -->(start) So the ending analogy would be "Win:Loose::Stop:Start"
Examples:
"much:little::early:____ aelt
"ear:hear::mouth:____ ekpsa
"finger:hand::page:____ kobo
"work:success::study:____ relan
bat:baseball::whistle:____ erfeere
Answers
late
speak
book
learn
referee
A false premise is a proposition on which a statement is made or conclusion is drawn. Since the premise (proposition, assumption, suggestion, or idea from which a conclusion is drawn)is not correct or not fully correct, the conclusion drawn may be in error.
Statement one: Pandas are black and white.
Statement two: Silent movies are black and white.
Conclusion: All pandas are silent movies!
This is a false premise because a person has put two true statements together that combined make a false fact.
More examples of False Premise:
Example 1:
Hippos are gray.
Elephants are gray.
Conclusion: All Hippos are Elephants.
Example 2:
Birds are Mammals.
Humans are Mammals.
Conclusion:All birds are Humans.
Example 3:
Trees are living.
Dolphins are living.
Conclusion:All trees are Dolphins.

Analogies that use rhyme often have similar ending sounds such as "D
eer
:St
eer
::B
oat
:Fl
oat
" The "
eer"
sound in the first pair of words rhyme and the "oat" sound in the second pair rhyme.
Other examples:
"Bl
ue
:Sh
oe
::Ei
ght
:Pl
ate
"
"Pl
eat
:Compl
ete
::Th
rew
Breakth
rough
"Naviga
tor
:Wai
ter
::Walk
ing
:Talk
ing
SPI:0801.5.5 -- Choose a logical word to complete an analogy using synonyms,antonyms,homonyms,categories/subcategories,whole/part,functions,verb forms,rhymes,scrambled words, and homophones.
SPI:0801.5.7-- Identify false premise
http://quizlet.com/4921089/types-of-analogies-flash-cards/
http://www.spellingcity.com/analogies.html
http://www.fibonicci.com/verbal-reasoning/word-analogies/examples-types/
Objectives
http://www.vocabulary.co.il/analogies/analogy-lesson-video/
Analogy Video
http://www.vocabulary.co.il/analogies/analogy-types-video/
Analogy Video and Game
Practice: Identify if the following analogies are synonyms or antonyms.
1.empty:full::awkward:graceful
2.main:primary::labor:work
3.narrow:thin::boulder:rock
4.yell:whisper::tame:wild
5.delay:stall::allow:permit
6.system:method::faith:trust
*answers on next slide*
Practice answers
2.main:primary::labor:work
synonym
3.narrow:thin::boulder:rock
synonym
4.yell:whisper::tame:wild
antonym

5.delay:stall::allow:permit
synonym
6.system:method::faith:trust
synonym
1.empty:full::awkward:graceful
antonym
Homophone and Homonym Practice
1.too:two::there:their
2.bill:bill::read:read
3.bye:by::accept:except
4.fall:fall::bark:bark
5.affect:effect::ants:aunts

*answers on next slide*
1.too:two::there:their
2.bill:bill::read:read
3.bye:by::accept:except
4.fall:fall::bark:bark
5.affect:effect::ants aunts

1.homophone
2.homonym
3.homophone
4.homonym
5.homophone
Reminder
:
Homophones
are words that have the same pronunciation but different meanings, and
Homonyms
have the same spelling but different meanings.
Citations
Identify if the analogies listed
are homonyms or homophones.
Answers:
http://www.vocabulary.co.il/analogies/middle-school/middle-school-analogy-match/
Full transcript