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Sleep Deprivation & Sleep Walking

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Aysha Al Muhairi

on 9 March 2017

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Transcript of Sleep Deprivation & Sleep Walking

Aysha AlMhairi 201407653
Dana Ramdan M80006921
Sara Jasem 2012022318
Noora AlHamlie 2012303156
Nada Aqeel 201303156

Sleep Deprivation
What is sleep?
Sleep Deprivation Signs And Symptoms
Too little sleep
(an average of 8.2 hours of sleep each night is required for most adults)

Primary sleep disorders
(such as obstructive sleep apnea, narcolepsy, restless leg syndrome or insomnia)

Fragmented sleep
(such as interruption by frequent phone calls or pagers or by residents who share the same on call room, the need to follow up on patients or to supervise more junior trainees or the drive back and forth to the hospital...)

Circadian rhythm disruption
(such as occurs with night float work in which there are predictable mismatches between circadian and endogenous rhythms of asleep and awake).

Other conditions that may masquerade as fatigue:
(such as anxiety, depression, stress, thyroid disease, other medical conditions, medication side effects, burnout, or career dissatisfaction)
Sleep Deprivation and Fatigue
Sleep Deprevation
Sleep is not a passive state of unconsciousness
Its an essential physiological process
William Dement: ‘As far as I know, the only reason we need to sleep that is really really solid is because we get sleepy.’
2 main phases; REM(25%) and non-REM(75%)
Stages of sleep
REM: active brain, dreams, support daytime performance

Stage 1
Stage 2
Stage 3 & 4
Light Sleep

Disengaged from surrounding

Relaxed muscles, restorative sleep, hormones released

What is sleep deprivation?
When does it occur?
Symptoms: excessive daytime sleepiness, moodiness, fatigue, increased appetite, clumsiness, lack of motivation, forgetfulness, difficulty learning new concepts
Effects of SD
(Peters, 2016)
Neurological effects

Vital signs changes

Hormonal changes

Major health effects
Decreased performance during SD
(Stevens, 2015)

One explanation is:

Microsleep is a moment of sleep followed by disorientation, experienced especially by persons suffering from narcolepsy or sleep deprivation.
Blank stare
Prolonged eye closure

Yawning and drowsiness
Grogginess when waking up
Tired and drowsy (at any time of the day)
Reduced concentration
Poor eye-hand coordination
Napping during the day or be resist to get out of bed in the morning

Sleep calculation is based on a simple fact; every hour/minute of sleep lost must be recovered (Ruhl, Kerezman & American Bar Association, 2006). Moreover, since missed sleep causes gained wakefulness, the time spent in wakefulness must be accounted for when calculating a true sleep debt. An adult requires 8 hours of sleep daily, which balances 16 hours of wakefulness. Since 16 is twice greater than 8, it means that 2 hours of wakefulness equal 1 hour of sleep. If an adult sleeps for 6 hours instead of 8, he/she loses 2 hours of sleep that can only be recovered by sleeping three extra hours. This necessitates an 11-hour sleep the next night.

Sleep Deprivation Calculation
Causes of SD
Medical Conditions
Clinical Sleep Disorders
Side effect of Medication
Psychological causes

(Breus, n.d)

Treatment & Prevention
Stick to Bedtime schedule routine
Avoid eating 2-3 before bedtime
Turn off your phone and electronic devices.
Keeping the bedroom dark, quiet
Room temperature (below 70f)
exercise during the day
Take bath 90 to 120 minute before bed
Avoid Caffeine

(Davis, n.d.)

Peters, B. (2016). What are the physical effects of sleep deprivation on the body?: From hormonal changes to weight gain, major problems may result. Retrieved from https://www.verywell.com/what-are-the-physical-effects-of-sleep-deprivation-3015079
Pietrangelo, A. (2014). The effects of sleep deprivation on the body. Retrieved from http://www.healthline.com/health/sleep-deprivation/effects-on-body
Stevens, M. (2015). Normal sleep, sleep physiology, and sleep deprivation: Effects of Sleep Deprivation. Retrieved from http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1188226-overview#a4
Breus, M. J. (n.d.). Sleep Habits: More Important Than You Think. Retrieved March 01, 2017, from http://www.webmd.com/sleep-disorders/features/important-sleep-habits#2
Davis, K. (n.d.). Sleep Deprivation: Causes, Symptoms and Treatment. Retrieved March 01, 2017, from http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/307334.php
Van Dongen, H. P., Maislin, G., Mullington, J. M., & Dinges, D. F. (2003). The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: dose-response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation. Receive from http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=

Kerkhof, G. A., & Van Dongen, H. P. A. (2010). Effects of sleep deprivation on cognition.  Receive from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/47790667_Effects_of_sleep_deprivation_on_cognition

Orzeł-Gryglewska, J. (2010). Consequences of sleep deprivation. International journal of occupational medicine and environmental health. Receive from http://www.imp.lodz.pl/upload/oficyna/artykuly/pdf/full/2010/1_Orzel.pdf
Maslin, G., & Mullington, J. (2007). The Cumulative Cost of Additional Wakefulness: Dose-Response Effects on Neurobehavioral Functions and Sleep Physiology From Chronic Sleep Restriction and Total Sleep Deprivation. Retrieved March 05, 2017, from https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/de9b/cf9e49b3f938197cef1be43b20122c299d41.pdf
Kyle, S. (n.d.). What is Sleep? Retrieved March 05, 2017, from https://www.sleepio.com/articles/sleep-science/what-is-sleep/

(Peri, 2014)
Fatigue in the workplace
(Sadeghniiat-Haghighi and Zohreh Yazdi, 2015)
Affects everyone regardless of skill, knowledge, and training.
It has influences directly on many people's physical and mental abilities needed to carry out even simple task.
The most important effects of fatigue including decreased task motivation, longer reaction time, reduction of alertness, impaired concentration, poorer psychometric coordination, problems in memory and information processing, and poor judgment.
It is estimated that fatigue workers in workplace is costing more than 18 billion $ a year in US.
Poor communication with surrounding environment and more quickly becomes angry towards other people.
Potentially dangerous to themselves and others, and the highest rate of catastrophic incidents is usually found among fatigue shift workers.
(Maslin & Mullington, 2007)
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