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The Woodland Cree
Transcript of The Woodland Cree
-Woodland Cree men and woman used plants, wood, stone, antlers, bone, hides, sinew and many other raw natural resources
- made homes, clothing, tools, weapons, containers, snowshoes, fish hooks, and dozens of other hooks
-arrowheads of bone and antler
By: Jasleen Sidhu
- Could not depend on others for daily needs
- Did not have many personal possessions
- Kept on moving place to place
- Gathered wild plants, berries and other sources of food, medicine and raw materials
- They hunted snare small animals/fish
-Prepare meals and tend the fire
-make twine, rope, thread, rawhide, and sinew
- Make baskets, containers, wigwam covers, snowshoe welding
- Skin animals, clean and tan hides, stretch furs
-Make clothing, decorate items, keep clothing clean, and mend tools
-Set up and take down wigwam covering
-Carry burdens when moving
-Plant and harvest summer gardens
-Pass on skills and knowledge to children
- Hunt large and small game and birds, fish
- Trap snare, stalk, and track animals
- Make wigwam frames, snowshoe frames, toboggans, tools weapons and canoes
- Learn about habitats and movements of game and
fur-bearing animals and forest survival skills
- Use weapons for defense and warfare
- Trade furs for wild rice and corn
- Pass on skills and knowledge to children
The land, climate, vegetation and animal life of the religion influenced how they met their needs.
They had rocky lands, outcrops, muskeg and rugged hills and uplands.
The Woodland Cree had many lakes, rivers and streams (swift flowing) especially in the wintertime.
They had dense forests and some deciduous shrubs.
They had long, very cold winters with heavy snowfall.
The Woodland Cree got moderate rain and very few hours of daylight during the winter.
The people of the Woodland Cree hunted moose, woodland caribou,deer, bear, ducks, geese, rabbits and fish.
Farther north in the Woodland Cree, the area becomes tundra (spare trees, low shrubs, mosses and lichens).
-Late winter was the most difficult time for the people living in the deep woods.
-As the days grew longer and warmer migrating ducks and geese returned from the south.
-Woodland Cree families traveled toward traditional meeting places.
-travel was dificult
Travel was difficult because the snow and ice is melting
they stopped often to hunt because food was on short supply.
Collecting sap from the maple trees to make maple syrup was a spring activity
during the summer, groups came together for festivals and to make group decisions
religious ceremonies were held
courting, arranging of marriages and ceremonies were summer activities
fish was a main food source in the summer
hunting, gathering, drying and preserving food for winter were autumn activities
trading furs for supplies like wild rice with groups further south increased the food supply
as soon as the first frost appeared, family groups returned to the forests
families had traditional hunting, trapping and ice fishing territories
groups would be separated by many kilometres
each amount of forest supplied a certain amount of game ( animals to hunt)
during long winter months women made clothing from animal skins they had tanned during the summer
if no food was available in a families territory they were welcome to hunt in another families territory
The Woodland Cree had a sense of belonging to family, clan, group, social roles, and passing along the culture. This tribe thinks that it is healthy to create a balance between body, mind, and spirit. They expressed their spiritual beliefs and values through music stories, stories, and ceremonies.
" The family is the main way a culture is passed from one generation to the next." Hunting bands sized about 25-30. Everyone treated each other as brothers and sisters.
Family 'clans' are traced back along patrilineal lines
Family and Clan
-understood food was limited
-fish could be caught in any season
-woman gathered nuts, berries, roots, maple syrup, and honey, as well as plants used for medicine
-food was smoked and dried to preserve them, and pemmican was made
-pemmican was a compact, nutritious food that was important during traveling
-the three main crops of the Eastern Woodland for farmers were corn, beans and squash
-The Eastern Woodlands Hunters were called hunter gatherers, in terms of their food collection methods
The Eastern Woodlands Hunters moved into small villages during the summer.
lived in villages
environment includes mountains, ocean and rainforests
Ocean and Lakes provided plentiful food
Cedar was used for travel and trade along the coast
Farmers and Hunters
developed a way of life based on farming and hunting
hunted, fished and gathered plants
forest environment contained growing crops
As a nation, the Woodland Cree had found very unique ways to survive the
'unknown world.' I am here today, to explain the Physical needs of an average Woodland Cree person.
Cermonies were special events for the Woodland Cree.There were celebrations to mark the three phases in life: birth, puberty, and death.
The Feast of the Dead was held by Huron.When village shifted every 10-15 years. All dead bodies were removed from the tombs and buried in common deep pit lined with beaver robes
-made axes and arrowheads from stone
-they made knives and fish hooks from bone
-containers were made from birch bark and stone.
-built canoes from wood and bark
Deganawidah is best known as great leader, who with Hiawatha, founded the league of Iroquois.
The largest political unit was
called a village band
special events for
the Woodland Cree.
There were celebrations
to mark the 3 phases of life:
birth, puberty, and death.
The Feast of the Dead was held by Huron
When village shifted ( every 10-15 years ),
All dead bodies were removed from the
tombs and buried in common deep pit lined
with beaver robes.
The Feast of the Dead
The Eastern Woodlands hunters lived sedentary lifestyles.
-a wampum is used to mark exchanges for engagement, marriage, ceremony and condolence ceremonies
- did you know that typically large belt of six feet (2 m) in length might contain 6000 beads or more?
-Most of their clothing was made out of animal hide
Kichi Manitou is an aboriginal phrase meaning “Great Spirit.”
-wigwams were temporary structures could move easily to a new area
-width of an average house was usually 2.5 to 3 m
-the frame of the house was made of young trees and covered with sheets of birch bark or hides
-when family moved, the covering was taken, not the frame
-tepees covered with hide and bark
-mats spread over branches
-a hole on top of home to let out smoke
-they lived in small isolated groups for half of a year
-most people lived in cone-shaped 'wigwams', which looked like Plains tipis
-Wampum is used to mark exchanges for engagement, marriage, and ceremony and condolence ceremonies
-Did you know that typically large belt of six feet (2 m) in length might contain 6000 beads or more?
-most clothing was made of animal hide
-Cree women wore long dresses with removable sleeves
-Cree men wore breech cloths and leggings
-Crees also wore moccasins on their feet
-cloaks or ponchos in bad weather
-they wore leather leggings and leather boots
-in the winter they added coats, gloves, and hats as needed
Clan and Band
-Woodland Cree had many clans
-loyal to clan
-were groups of related families that lived and traveled together
-each band was independent and has its own chief
-leaders were chosen because they were respected for their skill in hunting and ability to lead conflict or war
-did not make decisions by themselves
-spiritual leaders guided the decision making process
-elders acted as advisers and as teachers to the leaders
-made sure that everyone understood and remembered the customs and laws of people
-conflict was avoided as much as possible
-behavior was very strict
-allowed personal space
-if person conflicts could not be resolved, elders would assist
-go to war if needed
-men trained as warriors as well as hunters
- they wore leather leggings and leather boots
-women wore leather dresses belted at the waist
-in winter they added coats, gloves, and hats as needed
By: Siane S.
Thank You for listening to our
Now we have some visuals to
The Green Corn Festival
- celebrated by many indian tribes.
- grateful for harvests.
- held in late summer or early fall.
The False Face Society
- Iroquois healing group
-Dramatic wooden masks used for healing
-the most famous Cree weapon was the bow and arrow
-other Cree weapons included spears, clubs, and knives
-the Northern Cree hunter in this picture is using a special birch bark instrument to make sounds that attract moose
-the East Crees used bone fishhooks and nets for fishing