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Transcript of Hitch-hiking Jellyfish
Diet & How they capture their food?
Adult medusae of Vallentinia gabriellae are dime-sized, 6 - 8 mm in diameter. The hemispherical bell, with 4 radial canals, supports two types of tentacles: exumbrellar tentacles (4- 8 in number) with terminal adhesive organs; and 16 to 128 hollow marginal tentacles.
Location It Lives At:
With the Environment:
It has two phases to it reproduction:
the medusa or sexually producing phase and the polyp, or asexually producing phase. Gonochoristic medusae release eggs and sperm. Polyps can produce more medusae, or more polyps by budding asexually. Three types of buds are produced:
1) Frustules - (0.5 mm in length) are produced in mucous encased clusters of 4 or more and can mature into a polyp in about 3 - 4 weeks. It appears that the frustule stage is capable of withstanding adverse conditions of temperature and salinity. Polyps metamorphosing from the frustule can also continue the life-cycle by producing more medusae and/or polyps.
2) Hydranth buds are rarely produced. When these do appear they generally contain only one hydranth per polyp.
3) Medusa buds are located on the sides of the polyp and are produced after several weeks in culture. When released from buds, medusae were easily reared on an Artemia diet and matured sexually in 3 - 4 weeks, with a maximum diameter of 6.5 mm. Medusae are formed one at a time from buds but a polyp may simultaneously have more than one medusa forming bud.
Presented by: Keliah
flagellates and small fish/marine animals
Capturing and getting food:
It immobilizes prey by nematocysts located along tentacles. It may also use nematocysts to discourage potential predators.
It has been described from the southern coast of Brazil (Vannucci Mendes, Bimini, the Gulf coast of Louisiana, the northern coast of Yucatan, Mexico, and the Indian River Lagoon, FL. Also, it was found in a mosquito impoundment (19 A) perimeter ditch in mangrove wetland on the barrier island side of the Indian River Lagoon, FL, 6.5 km north of Fort Pierce and 17.5 km south of Vero Beach.
Did you know...?
This first time discovery in 1990 was somewhat surprising because these areas had been previously sampled extensively (in the Indian River Lagoon, FL, 6.5 km north of Fort Pierce and 17.5 km south of Vero Beach area).
It has been suggested that when abundant, Vallentinia gabriellae could be a significant predator of wetland zooplankton because of the voracious appetite displayed by this hydrozoan in laboratory feeding experiments. In one feeding study, Vallentinia gabriellae was presented a wide array of food items, ranging in size from 4.0 to 10.0 mm.
The effects of the Hitch-hiker Jellyfish's venom are unknown on humans to be recorded or on record
Did you know...?
Large specimens had 80 - 90 marginal tentacles and 8 exumbrellar tentacles with adhesive disks. The marginal tentacles, containing gravity detecting statocysts at the base, can be extended for 30 mm. Polyps 0.1 - 1.0 mm in length, grow permanently attached to substratum and contain the same type of nematocyst (microbasic heterotrichous euryteles) as the marginal tentacles.
Fact for Interest...
There are three varieties living and were recorded in the appropriate years:
Vallentinia gabriellae Mendes, 1948
Vallentinia adherens Hyman, 1947
Vallentinia falklandica Browne, 1902
Interesting Fact for the Day
Between the tentacles are statocysts, sensory organs which can detect gravitational pull and which help the animal to orientate itself correctly.
Final Fact of Interest
Locomotion: Swimming in Vallentinia gabriellae is accomplished by the rhythmic pulsation of the bell, while marginal tentacles are contracted.. Medusae, when not swimming, can become sedentary by attaching themselves by the adhesive organs located on the terminus of the exumbrellar tentacles
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