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Selective Breeding

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Akhil Saj

on 11 October 2012

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Transcript of Selective Breeding

Selective Breeding What is selective breeding It is the process of breeding plants and animals for particular traits. Why do we need it? 1.Increased quality and yield of the crop
2.Timing of maturity
3.Resistance to viruses, fungi and
4.Increased tolerance to insect pests
5.Increased tolerance of herbicides Increased Quality and yield Developing crop varieties which convert
more of their biomass into productive yield
is the single biggest contributor to
improved crop output. The introduction of
shorter-strawed cereals is a striking
example of how this has been achieved, by
transforming more of the crop’s productive
energy into valuable grain. Disease Resistance Genetic resistance to disease enables crops to realise their yield potential – it can also mean reduced use of agrochemicals. Plant breeding has significantly improved the genetic resistance of crops against the threat of viral and fungal infection. Key examples include resistance to blight in potatoes, rhizomania in sugar beet, and barley yellow mosaic virus in cereals. The challenge of breeding resistant varieties is constant because new strains of disease develop naturally. Member Member Member Member Member Member Member (cc) photo by theaucitron on Flickr Timing of maturity Plant breeding technology has brought major improvements in the uniformity with which crops ripen ready for harvest. This not only reduces potential crop losses at harvest (as in the case of pod shatter in oilseed rape), but has also improved growers’ ability to mechanise harvesting operations. In the field vegetable sector, for example, the labour intensive (and unpleasant!) task of picking crops such as cauliflower, broccoli and Brussels sprouts has been transformed by the development of improved varieties. By improving crops’ ability to cope with a range of other agronomic pressures, advances in plant breeding continue to underpin progress in agricultural productivity. They include: genetic resistance to pests, such as nematode resistance in potatoes shorter crop life-cycle, to expand a crop’s geographical growing areas stress tolerance, such as frost resistance in field vegetables, to extend the seasonal availability of home-grown fresh produce. Improved genetic resistance to diseases such as blight in potatoes and yellow rust in cereals has helped minimise crop losses and reduce the need for agrochemicals. More resistance to disease/droughts/pest More yield More FOOD!! FEED THE
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