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Child Sexual Abuse

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Deborah Yap

on 27 December 2013

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Transcript of Child Sexual Abuse

A talk to create awareness
Act Urgently!
Child sexual abuse
has become one of the
highest-profile crimes and have deeply damaged children.

Article 1
- A child is any person
under 18 years of age.
Convention on the Rights of the Child

Contains 54 articles and spells out the basic human rights of all children.
Adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1989 as the most universally accepted human rights document in history.
Ratified by Malaysia in 1995 for the protection and well being of its children.
Child Sexual Abuse
Objective of Talk
Raise awareness for prevention

It is happening
Who can be victims and offenders
Correct misconceptions
What and how it happens
Prevention tools
Laws, reports, child protection

U N I C E F
The United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund,
was created on 11 December 1946 by resolution of the UN General
Assembly in the aftermath of the second World War.
It was created to help war-shattered countries mend the lives of their children.
Child Sexual Grooming

Intentional
Usually plan & prepare a course of actions to make contact with a child for the purpose of abusing him or her.

Confusing

Child is usually confused with the feelings, sensations and emotions -
not emotionally mature to understand them.

Exploitative


Most initiator exploits the child's innocence, and the
victim is uninformed of the nature of what is happening to them.

Secrecy
A predator will usually
introduce secrecy
Secrecy binds the victim to the predator
Forced
The sex offender will also use threats
(psychological force) that will make the child afraid to tell anyone about the abuse
Stage 2

Target child


Stage 3

Introduce physical touch


Stage 4

Introduce sexual touch


Stage 5

Secrecy pact


Child Grooming Stages
Stage 1
Creates opportunities

Four Foundational Principals
Article 2
- Non discrimination – all inclusive

Article 3
- Best interest of the child

Article 6
- The child’s right to life, survival and development

Article 12
- Respect for the views of the child



Four Basic Human Rights
Survival
- life; shelter, nutrition, healthcare, basic standard of living

Development
- education, culture, leisure, play, sports, information, freedom of thought

Protection
- an identity and protected from abuse, neglect and exploitation

Participation
- have a say in decisions affecting them, be supported in expressing themselves.




What is Child Sexual Abuse?
when an adult or older adolescent in power coerces, tricks, and/or forces a child to take part in any sexual activity,
which involves secrecy
using the child for his or her
own sexual stimulation which the molester knows is unacceptable.

A child is said to be sexually abused if he has taken part whether as a participant or an observer, in any activity which is sexual in nature for the purpose of –


i) Any pornographic, obscene or indecent material, photograph, recording film, videotape or performance; or



ii) Sexual exploitation by any person for the person’s or another persons sexual gratification

Child Act 2001 Section 17(2c)
Is child sexual abuse really a problem in Malaysia?


Non contact






Contact

- Verbal sexual encouragement
- Obscene or suggestive telephone calls

Exhibitionism (Flashers)

Voyeurism (Peeping)

Showing pornography to a child

Photographing a child in sexual poses

Making a child watch or hear sexual acts

Obscene MMS / SMS (No Penal Code)

Kissing by using the tongue
Stroking or touching the genitals
Caressing, fondling of breasts
Rape
Forced masturbation
Trafficking children
Visiting Child prostitutes
Sodomy (Anal sex)
Oral Sex
Inserting objects into private body parts
Frottage (rubbing of private body parts against another)
What is a child?
Types of Child Sexual Abuse

Motivation
must be attracted to children
e.g. loves chocolates
Overcoming Internal Inhibitors
Justify his actions.
“She is asking for it. She is not wearing a panty.”
Life is too short and chocolate is too tempting and such a waste left uneaten.
Overcoming External Inhibitors
Conquer conscience
The camera is guarding the chocolate.
I have to get pass the inhibitor.

Overcoming Child’s Resistance
Finally, the chocolate is not able to shout for help.
Now I can have the chocolate

How does child sexual abuse happen?
Deliberate actions by an adult to form a trusting relationship with a child,
in order to lower the child's inhibitions for
Child Sexual Abuse.



Also used to lure children into sexual exploitation such as

 child prostitution or the production of 

child phonographic materials.


Who can be potential victims?
Who are the sex offenders?


Children, both boys and girls



Children with disabilities



Big and small



Rich and poor



Irrespective of ethnicity or religion



Children who are vulnerable

Age and size of the child

Do not have good adult role models

Lack of context about sex and sexuality

Lack of private parts vocabulary or other telling language to tell about sexual abuse

Need of adults for food, shelter, etc.

Naive/emotional immaturity

Disabled children (40% more vulnerable)

Low self esteem, from a broken home

Lonely and rejected child with few friends

Marginalization (poor families, refugees, stateless, trafficked children)


What makes a child vulnerable?


He or she can be anyone :-

doctors, lawyers, Nobel laureates, fathers, mothers, step father, brothers, grandfathers, grandmothers, relatives, neighbors, priests, teachers, mediums, bomohs, drivers.

Serial child molesters and paedophiles come from all walks of life and do not discriminate by race, gender, social class, religion or age when seeking to sexually abuse children.


Online Predator 
Persistent feelings of attraction in an adult or older adolescent toward prepubescent children, whether the attraction is acted upon or not.



 A person with this attraction is called a “Paedophile”.


Paedophilia
 Paedophilic child molesters commit ten times more sexual acts against children than non-paedophilic child molesters.


Cause and cure
The causes of paedophilia are not known.
Most paedophiles are men.
Studies in the UK and US suggest that a range of 5% to 20% of offenders are women.

No significant curative treatment has yet been found except for certain therapies that can reduce the incidence of paedophilic behaviours.

Child-on-child Sexual Abuse
When a prepubescent child is sexually abused by one or more children or adolescent youths.
(date rape/molestation).

Occurs without consent, without equality
or maybe coerced
includes the use of physical force
threats, trickery or 
emotional manipulation
to elicit cooperation.

Incest
Sexual intercourse between close relatives irrespective of the ages of the participants and irrespective of their consent.

The most widespread form of child sexual abuse with the most extreme forms of childhood trauma, that often does serious and long-term psychological damage, is parental incest.

Sibling Abusive Incest
In families where one or both parents are often absent or emotionally unavailable
(one sibling asserting power over a weaker sibling)
 Absence of the father - a significant element of most cases of sexual abuse of female children by a brother.

Signs of Child Sexual Abuse
Some children do not show any signs or trauma.

Lack of outward signs of the abuse does not mean that it was not traumatic.

All children handle crisis differently even with the child's coping skill, intervention is required.


Physical
Reddening/itching of genital or anus
Pain or injury of genital/anus
Pain in passing urine
Vaginal/penile discharge
Abdominal pains
Venereal disease
Pregnancy

Behavioral
Withdrawal/thumb-sucking
Bed-wetting
Truancy /Poor performance in school
Compulsive behaviours
Aggression/anger
Nightmares/Depression
Denial, Guilt/Blame
Running away
Alcohol and drug abuse
Suicide attempts
Putting on many layers of clothes
Excessive masturbatory behaviour

Sexual knowledge

Fears; places, activities

Inability to trust

An abrupt change in behaviour or personality

Over-compliance, extreme timidity, meekness 

Eating disorders

Poor peer relationship

Self-abusive behaviours


Psychological
Depression manifesting in somatic complaints such as:
Headache
Stomachache
Chest pain
Fatigue
Insomnia
Low self-esteem
Fainting spells
Tearfulness
Hysteria
Irrational fears
Appetite loss
Lack of concentration
Sexualized Behavior
Children below 2
Sexual play with same age or younger children.
Excessive Masturbating
Continuously drawing sexual parts of the body
Imitating sex with clothing on (i.e. humping)
Viewing others as objects for sexual interaction.


Adolescent children



Suddenly wearing many layers of clothes.
Sexually explicit conversations with younger children.
Attempting to expose the genitals of others.
Obsession with sexually aggressive pornography.
Compulsive masturbation (chronic or public).
Using sex to intentionally hurt or threaten younger children.
Seductive behaviour or appearance

Know The Difference

These indicators individually may not signify CSA has occurred.
Some combinations of indicators should give you cause for concern
Child sexual abuse should not be confused with physical contact that are fond or playful expressions of love.
Responsible adults limit their physical exchange with a child, respect the child and at the same time, maintain a warm, healthy, affectionate relationship.

Personal Safety


Teach children how to protect and prevent themselves from
Child Sexual Abuse
Safe and UNSAFE touches
Proper NAMES for all PRIVATE BODY PARTS
Safety rules apply to ALL adults and anybody; not just strangers
NOT okay for anyone to touch their private body parts.
Say ‘NO’
RUN and keep yourself safe
Do not keep secrets about touching, no matter what that person says; TELL and KEEP TELLING until someone listens.

Safety Rules
What should I do with a child who had been abused?
Stay calm and confident
Believe the child
Listen but do not pressure for information
Comfort and reassure the child that it is not her /his fault
Allow expressions or feelings
Do not try to tackle the abuser yourself
Protect the child from further abuse
Get medical attention for the child immediately
Move child to a safe place
Report to the social welfare department and police in your district
Get the child to resume a normal life
Continue support and reassurance


Laws
Convention on the Rights of the Child
Child Act 2001
Penal Code
Harsh Punishments

Sentencing for Child Abuse
Child Act 2001 (S31)(1)(b)
Fine max RM 20,000
Prison term max 10 years Or both

Penal Code
Rape, Incest, Sodomy
max 20/30 years, whipping

Reporting Abuse
Child sexual abuse is a crime in this country.

It is also against the law if you know of abuse but remain quiet about
Part 5, Section 27-29 (1)Child Act 2001
Duty of:
doctor, family member, child care provider to report if he/she ...

has reasonable ground that the child is physically or emotionally injured as a result of being ill treated, neglected, abandoned or exposed or is sexually abused – must inform the authorities immediately

Fine not >RM 5,000 or a jail term not >2 years or both

Why Adults Don’t Report
Don’t want to get involved
Protect self image
Don’t believe
Not serious
Not sure of procedures
Ashamed
Culturally not acceptable
Personal family matter
Protect family’s name or child’s name
Tedious procedure & court process

The Dilemma of Disclosure for Children

Fear of not being believed
Fear of retaliation
Threatened by perpetrator (maintain secrecy)
Not Aware, Don’t know how to tell
Don’t want to remember (denial)
Fear of losing love
Fear of being blamed
Ashamed
Confused

Prevention Program
No guarantee that CSA will not happen

To be alert always watch and listen to children

Can help reduce the risk of it happening

Can be a form of early intervention to stop on going abuse

Useful Community Networks
Welfare officer (district/HQ)
NGO (child rights)
Police ( local, HQ)
Hospital
Psychologists
Education Dept
Talian Nur (Dial 15999)


Child protection starts
with US!

Do your part

Thank you for being here!

DATA ON OFFENDERS
85% - Men
15% - Women

30% - related to their victim
60% - family acquaintances
10% - strangers

72% of the sexual abuse s were Incest cases
Reported in 2008

89% are known to the victim
(Malaysian Police statistics 2006)

Responsibility of Adults
Articles 43-54 - adults and governments to make sure all children get all their rights.

Children are not possessions of parents nor the state and have equal status as every adult.

They depend on adults for complete nurture and security.

Adults are responsible for guiding children towards independence.

Why?
Loves offender

Finds sexual activity pleasurable

Receives gifts, attention, love, favors

Not believed or threatened
Feels the offender may be sick
The child can't say ‘no’
Lost control of his/her body
No one protects or stops the abuse
Fears he/she will not be loved any more or
will be taken away from the family
Does not like sex, it hurts
Threats of being beaten or the love one sent away

Children are not mature sexually or emotionally and are incapable of knowing about specific sex acts therefore cannot be consenting
Non Consenting
Verbal
Visual
Physical


4 Pre-conditions
Sexual grooming of children also occurs on the Internet and mobile phone.



Some abusers will pose as a child of any age, sex or appearance and can pretend to have the same hobbies in order to trick a child into meeting them in person.


An Adult Internet User exploits vulnerable children or teens, using Chat rooms, Instant messaging, Internet forums, social networking sites, and even video game consoles to trick children for sexual abuse.



Use a Software to monitor computer activity is recommended besides talking to children and teens about online safety.


6 reasons why a child is not blamed
Full transcript