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Child Sexual Abuse
Transcript of Child Sexual Abuse
Child sexual abuse
has become one of the
highest-profile crimes and have deeply damaged children.
- A child is any person
under 18 years of age.
Convention on the Rights of the Child
Contains 54 articles and spells out the basic human rights of all children.
Adopted by the UN General Assembly in 1989 as the most universally accepted human rights document in history.
Ratified by Malaysia in 1995 for the protection and well being of its children.
Child Sexual Abuse
Objective of Talk
Raise awareness for prevention
It is happening
Who can be victims and offenders
What and how it happens
Laws, reports, child protection
U N I C E F
The United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund,
was created on 11 December 1946 by resolution of the UN General
Assembly in the aftermath of the second World War.
It was created to help war-shattered countries mend the lives of their children.
Child Sexual Grooming
Usually plan & prepare a course of actions to make contact with a child for the purpose of abusing him or her.
Child is usually confused with the feelings, sensations and emotions -
not emotionally mature to understand them.
Most initiator exploits the child's innocence, and the
victim is uninformed of the nature of what is happening to them.
A predator will usually
Secrecy binds the victim to the predator
The sex offender will also use threats
(psychological force) that will make the child afraid to tell anyone about the abuse
Introduce physical touch
Introduce sexual touch
Child Grooming Stages
Four Foundational Principals
- Non discrimination – all inclusive
- Best interest of the child
- The child’s right to life, survival and development
- Respect for the views of the child
Four Basic Human Rights
- life; shelter, nutrition, healthcare, basic standard of living
- education, culture, leisure, play, sports, information, freedom of thought
- an identity and protected from abuse, neglect and exploitation
- have a say in decisions affecting them, be supported in expressing themselves.
What is Child Sexual Abuse?
when an adult or older adolescent in power coerces, tricks, and/or forces a child to take part in any sexual activity,
which involves secrecy
using the child for his or her
own sexual stimulation which the molester knows is unacceptable.
A child is said to be sexually abused if he has taken part whether as a participant or an observer, in any activity which is sexual in nature for the purpose of –
i) Any pornographic, obscene or indecent material, photograph, recording film, videotape or performance; or
ii) Sexual exploitation by any person for the person’s or another persons sexual gratification
Child Act 2001 Section 17(2c)
Is child sexual abuse really a problem in Malaysia?
- Verbal sexual encouragement
- Obscene or suggestive telephone calls
Showing pornography to a child
Photographing a child in sexual poses
Making a child watch or hear sexual acts
Obscene MMS / SMS (No Penal Code)
Kissing by using the tongue
Stroking or touching the genitals
Caressing, fondling of breasts
Visiting Child prostitutes
Sodomy (Anal sex)
Inserting objects into private body parts
Frottage (rubbing of private body parts against another)
What is a child?
Types of Child Sexual Abuse
must be attracted to children
e.g. loves chocolates
Overcoming Internal Inhibitors
Justify his actions.
“She is asking for it. She is not wearing a panty.”
Life is too short and chocolate is too tempting and such a waste left uneaten.
Overcoming External Inhibitors
The camera is guarding the chocolate.
I have to get pass the inhibitor.
Overcoming Child’s Resistance
Finally, the chocolate is not able to shout for help.
Now I can have the chocolate
How does child sexual abuse happen?
Deliberate actions by an adult to form a trusting relationship with a child,
in order to lower the child's inhibitions for
Child Sexual Abuse.
Also used to lure children into sexual exploitation such as
child prostitution or the production of
child phonographic materials.
Who can be potential victims?
Who are the sex offenders?
Children, both boys and girls
Children with disabilities
Big and small
Rich and poor
Irrespective of ethnicity or religion
Children who are vulnerable
Age and size of the child
Do not have good adult role models
Lack of context about sex and sexuality
Lack of private parts vocabulary or other telling language to tell about sexual abuse
Need of adults for food, shelter, etc.
Disabled children (40% more vulnerable)
Low self esteem, from a broken home
Lonely and rejected child with few friends
Marginalization (poor families, refugees, stateless, trafficked children)
What makes a child vulnerable?
He or she can be anyone :-
doctors, lawyers, Nobel laureates, fathers, mothers, step father, brothers, grandfathers, grandmothers, relatives, neighbors, priests, teachers, mediums, bomohs, drivers.
Serial child molesters and paedophiles come from all walks of life and do not discriminate by race, gender, social class, religion or age when seeking to sexually abuse children.
Persistent feelings of attraction in an adult or older adolescent toward prepubescent children, whether the attraction is acted upon or not.
A person with this attraction is called a “Paedophile”.
Paedophilic child molesters commit ten times more sexual acts against children than non-paedophilic child molesters.
Cause and cure
The causes of paedophilia are not known.
Most paedophiles are men.
Studies in the UK and US suggest that a range of 5% to 20% of offenders are women.
No significant curative treatment has yet been found except for certain therapies that can reduce the incidence of paedophilic behaviours.
Child-on-child Sexual Abuse
When a prepubescent child is sexually abused by one or more children or adolescent youths.
Occurs without consent, without equality
or maybe coerced
includes the use of physical force
threats, trickery or
to elicit cooperation.
Sexual intercourse between close relatives irrespective of the ages of the participants and irrespective of their consent.
The most widespread form of child sexual abuse with the most extreme forms of childhood trauma, that often does serious and long-term psychological damage, is parental incest.
Sibling Abusive Incest
In families where one or both parents are often absent or emotionally unavailable
(one sibling asserting power over a weaker sibling)
Absence of the father - a significant element of most cases of sexual abuse of female children by a brother.
Signs of Child Sexual Abuse
Some children do not show any signs or trauma.
Lack of outward signs of the abuse does not mean that it was not traumatic.
All children handle crisis differently even with the child's coping skill, intervention is required.
Reddening/itching of genital or anus
Pain or injury of genital/anus
Pain in passing urine
Truancy /Poor performance in school
Alcohol and drug abuse
Putting on many layers of clothes
Excessive masturbatory behaviour
Fears; places, activities
Inability to trust
An abrupt change in behaviour or personality
Over-compliance, extreme timidity, meekness
Poor peer relationship
Depression manifesting in somatic complaints such as:
Lack of concentration
Children below 2
Sexual play with same age or younger children.
Continuously drawing sexual parts of the body
Imitating sex with clothing on (i.e. humping)
Viewing others as objects for sexual interaction.
Suddenly wearing many layers of clothes.
Sexually explicit conversations with younger children.
Attempting to expose the genitals of others.
Obsession with sexually aggressive pornography.
Compulsive masturbation (chronic or public).
Using sex to intentionally hurt or threaten younger children.
Seductive behaviour or appearance
Know The Difference
These indicators individually may not signify CSA has occurred.
Some combinations of indicators should give you cause for concern
Child sexual abuse should not be confused with physical contact that are fond or playful expressions of love.
Responsible adults limit their physical exchange with a child, respect the child and at the same time, maintain a warm, healthy, affectionate relationship.
Teach children how to protect and prevent themselves from
Child Sexual Abuse
Safe and UNSAFE touches
Proper NAMES for all PRIVATE BODY PARTS
Safety rules apply to ALL adults and anybody; not just strangers
NOT okay for anyone to touch their private body parts.
RUN and keep yourself safe
Do not keep secrets about touching, no matter what that person says; TELL and KEEP TELLING until someone listens.
What should I do with a child who had been abused?
Stay calm and confident
Believe the child
Listen but do not pressure for information
Comfort and reassure the child that it is not her /his fault
Allow expressions or feelings
Do not try to tackle the abuser yourself
Protect the child from further abuse
Get medical attention for the child immediately
Move child to a safe place
Report to the social welfare department and police in your district
Get the child to resume a normal life
Continue support and reassurance
Convention on the Rights of the Child
Child Act 2001
Sentencing for Child Abuse
Child Act 2001 (S31)(1)(b)
Fine max RM 20,000
Prison term max 10 years Or both
Rape, Incest, Sodomy
max 20/30 years, whipping
Child sexual abuse is a crime in this country.
It is also against the law if you know of abuse but remain quiet about
Part 5, Section 27-29 (1)Child Act 2001
doctor, family member, child care provider to report if he/she ...
has reasonable ground that the child is physically or emotionally injured as a result of being ill treated, neglected, abandoned or exposed or is sexually abused – must inform the authorities immediately
Fine not >RM 5,000 or a jail term not >2 years or both
Why Adults Don’t Report
Don’t want to get involved
Protect self image
Not sure of procedures
Culturally not acceptable
Personal family matter
Protect family’s name or child’s name
Tedious procedure & court process
The Dilemma of Disclosure for Children
Fear of not being believed
Fear of retaliation
Threatened by perpetrator (maintain secrecy)
Not Aware, Don’t know how to tell
Don’t want to remember (denial)
Fear of losing love
Fear of being blamed
No guarantee that CSA will not happen
To be alert always watch and listen to children
Can help reduce the risk of it happening
Can be a form of early intervention to stop on going abuse
Useful Community Networks
Welfare officer (district/HQ)
NGO (child rights)
Police ( local, HQ)
Talian Nur (Dial 15999)
Child protection starts
Do your part
Thank you for being here!
DATA ON OFFENDERS
85% - Men
15% - Women
30% - related to their victim
60% - family acquaintances
10% - strangers
72% of the sexual abuse s were Incest cases
Reported in 2008
89% are known to the victim
(Malaysian Police statistics 2006)
Responsibility of Adults
Articles 43-54 - adults and governments to make sure all children get all their rights.
Children are not possessions of parents nor the state and have equal status as every adult.
They depend on adults for complete nurture and security.
Adults are responsible for guiding children towards independence.
Finds sexual activity pleasurable
Receives gifts, attention, love, favors
Not believed or threatened
Feels the offender may be sick
The child can't say ‘no’
Lost control of his/her body
No one protects or stops the abuse
Fears he/she will not be loved any more or
will be taken away from the family
Does not like sex, it hurts
Threats of being beaten or the love one sent away
Children are not mature sexually or emotionally and are incapable of knowing about specific sex acts therefore cannot be consenting
Sexual grooming of children also occurs on the Internet and mobile phone.
Some abusers will pose as a child of any age, sex or appearance and can pretend to have the same hobbies in order to trick a child into meeting them in person.
An Adult Internet User exploits vulnerable children or teens, using Chat rooms, Instant messaging, Internet forums, social networking sites, and even video game consoles to trick children for sexual abuse.
Use a Software to monitor computer activity is recommended besides talking to children and teens about online safety.
6 reasons why a child is not blamed