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Sustainability

Revision notes for sustainability
by

Justin Mills

on 6 January 2013

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Transcript of Sustainability

Sustainability What to know... The 6 R's
Social Issues
Moral Issues
Cultural Issues
Environmental Issues
Design Issues The 6 Rs Rethink
Reuse
Recycle
Repair
Reduce
Refuse Rethink
When designing the product you must consider all the different ways it can be produced and decide on the best design.

Use materials that will limit the amount of damage to the environment. Reuse
Design the product so that it can be used again
e.g. multiple engraving plates.

Also consider using materials that can be recycled after the product has been used. Recycle Try to use materials that are recyclable to limit the damage to the environment.

To be even more environmentally friendly use materials that are easy to recycle without using lots of energy. Repair Make the product easy to repair in case that it breaks.

If the product contains complex pieces they must be easily accessible so that they can be repaired or replaced Reduce When making the product reduce the amount of materials and try to find uses for the waste material.

By using the waste material it stops it from being put into dumps and is more sustainable as it is better for the environment and makes more use of the material which is bought. Refuse Refuse the use of unnecessary materials such as excess packaging which is not recyclable.

By getting rid of unnecessary materials there is less waste material and it is cheaper to produce the final product. Primary Recycling Primary recycling is the process where a product is reused.

Giving clothes to friends and family or buying products from charity shops are all examples of primary recyling. Secondary/Physical Recycling Secondary recycling is when waste materials are recycled into a different product. Some products can biodegrade before being recycled.

e.g. most packaging nowadays is biodegradeable so that it can be recycled into a new product. Tertiary/Chemical Recycling Tertiary recycling is the process where the product is broken down through the use of chemicals and can then be made into new products.

For example car tyres can be be broken down and recycled into computer mouse mats. Life Cycle The life cycle of a product are the stages a new product goes through from conception to eventual decomposition.

There are 7 stages to a products life cycle: how the materials are gathered; how the product is made; how and where the product is distributed and how much it costs; what is the intended use of the product; how can the product be recycled; can the product be easily maintained and does it affect the environment; is the waste from the product recyclable or biodegradeable. Eco Footprint An eco footprint is a measurement of our actions which effect the environment. When designing a product the effect of it on the environment must be considered.

By using a eco footprint it shows you have recognised the effect your product has on the environment. Built in obselence Built in obselence is when a product is designed to last for a certain period of time. After the set time elements of the product will fail. This encourages the consumer to purchase a new product.

Many products are built in obselence, for example, a washing machine will work for a set time and then components will fail once this time limit is reached, meaning a new washing machine needs to be purchased. Social Issues Nowadays, products are largely effected by society, products must be designed to suit the many cultures and nationalities of modern society or must be specific to a certain section of society.
Social issues include: social development and considering the views of others when designing products, understanding the relationship between man and the general environment, economic development and society's values. CFCs CFC's are synthetic substances which contain chlorine and bromine. Originally, in the 1930's, they were thought to be safe, non-flammable and non-toxic. However in the 1980's it was discovered that they were extremely harful for the ozone layer. Carbon Footprint Carbon footprint is a measure of the impact humans have on the environment through the amount of carbon dioxide produced. Carbon dioxide is one of the main greenhouse gases which are causing global warming. It is linked to the eco footprint and shows us how much CO2 is produced because of our activities Carbon Offsetting Carbon offsetting is a method where people and companies undertake measures to limit the impact they have on the environment through their carbon footprint. Carbon offsetting involves using more ecological energy such as renewable energy. Reforestation Reforestation is a term used to describe when existing forests and woodlands are restocked with vegetation. This method allows ecosystems to form and can reduce the negative effects of CO2. End of life disposal End of life disposal is the issue where products need to be disposed of when they can no longer be used and it must be done in the most environmentally friendly way. Products are labelled nowadays, to show consumers whether the product and packaging can be recycled after use. Moral Issues Moral issues concern the way in which products are manufactured and how the people involved in the production and the consumers are effected by the product. Most products are made in safe conditions for those who manufacture and use the product.
Moral issues include: moral development which is realising how technology affects the environment and what the advantages and disadvatages are for new technologies such as GM foods or automated production. Conditions of working is also a moral issue as the workers must be treated fairly and safely at all times in the workplace. Cultural Issues Within the many cultures of todays society, each one has it's own traditions. Products affect the quality of life differently within different cultures.
Cultural issues include: considering and responding to and valuing the responses of others to design solutions and the impact differnt cultures have on modern products and how it contrasts traditional skills and knoweledge. Environmental Issues When a product is designed it must be suitable for the environment through manufacturing and use.
Environmental issues include: selecting materials which are sustainable, disposing or recycling of waste materials effectively, manufacturing the product appropriatly prepare the materials economically to minimise waste and possibly use pre-manufactured components.
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