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Psychology for Sport - Group Dynamics

BTEC Level 3: Psychology for Sports Performance. Topic: Group Dynamics

Alice Tocknell

on 15 October 2014

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Transcript of Psychology for Sport - Group Dynamics

Group Dynamics
L.O 3: Know the role of group dynamics in team sports
P5: Identify four factors which influence group dynamics and performance in team sports
M3: Explain four factors which influence group dynamics and performance in team sports
D2: Analyse four factors which influence group dynamics and performance in team sports
Psychology for Sports Performance
Alice Tocknell
Grading Criteria
Michael Jordan once said "Talent wins games; teamwork and intelligence wins championships"
What do you think his opinion is on the importance of teamwork?
Teamwork Quiz
Write down who you think fulfilled these roles in your group
A Captain
A Spokesperson
A Scribe
A Researcher
A Motivator
- Responsible for verbally giving answers
- Responsible for making sure answers are writen down,
- Problem solver / Brain box!
- Responsible for ensuring high team morale
- Responsible for taking control of the group and assigning other roles
Did roles overlap?
Olympics Round
Sport Trivia Round
Teams Round
In 1976 Princess Anne competed in the Montreal Olympics riding a ...?
A. Bicycle
B. Sailing boat
C. Bobsleigh
D. Horse
What was different about the Ancient Olympics?
B. All athletes competed nude
A. Events only took place at night
C. All athletes were gods
D. Sons of olympic winners had to compete when they turned 14
Put these olympic hosting cities in order of when they first hosted the modern olympic games...
A. Athens
B. Bejiing
C. London
D. Barcelona
A. Because at least one of the colours appeared on the flag of every country in the world.
B. Because they are the 5 primary colours
C. Because they symbolised the 5 main Greek Gods
D. Because a Greek artist designed it that way
Why were the colours of the Olympic Rings chosen?
London 2012...Observation Round
Name as many sports as possible where you have to win the last point in order to win the game/match
American Teams...
Which national football teams do these badges belong to?
Which famous American basketball team has featured in two films and a cartoon series since being formed in 1927 by Abraham Saperstein?
Complete the names of the following NFL teams...
............................................................. Titans
Seattle ........................................................
Tampa Bay .................................................
Atlanta Seahawks
Buccaneers Tennessee
These teams have all had a film made about them, can you name the films?
Jamaican Bobsleigh

T. C. Williams High School American Football Team

Springboks Rugby

Richmond High School Basketball Team
Finish the iconic lines from Al Paciono's inspiration speech from the film 'Any Given Sunday'....
I mean one half step too late or to early you don’t quite make it.
One half second too slow or too fast and you don’t quite .................. ..........
I’ll tell you this in any fight it is the guy who is willing to die who is going ..... ......... .......... ..........
That’s a team, gentlemen and either we heal now, as a team, or ...... ........ ........ ....... ...............................
Stages of Group Development
Did you work together as a group to get your answer’s?

Did 1 person take control of the group and dominate?

Was there one person who you automatically respected and you listened to?
Tuckman (1965) said for a group to become a team, they must go through four stages of group development...
Stage 1: Forming
Stage 2: Storming
Stage 3: Norming
Stage 4: Performing
The individuals comes together and gets to initially know one other and form as a group.
Assess strengths and weaknesses of members
Begin to define roles e.g leadership
Decide if they belong in the group
Chaotic period of conflict where individuals seek their roles and status within the group.
Team members start to fight for status within the team.
Rebellion against the leader or resistance to the way the team is being developed/managed or the tactics they are adopting
Intense inter-group competition, as group members compete for their position within the team.
Team members start to gravitate towards the norms of the group.
Members start to appreciate the unique contribution that each member can make to the successful functioning of the team.
Members accept the common goals and values of the group
The group pulls together and the roles are established and become stable.
This stage involves the team progressing and functioning effectively as a unit
Group works without conflict towards achievement of shared goals
Group is more motivated
Group is more knowledgeable and able to make it's own decisions and take responsibility for them
As new people join the group there will be a new period of storming and norming as this person is either accepted or rejected.
All groups will go through all stages, but the time they spend there may differ...
Is there a stage 5?
Lesson 1: Teamwork
Group effectiveness
Think back to last lessons video:
Who are the main leaders?
Why are they the leaders?
Are they good or bad leaders?
Gerry Bertier
Coach Boone
Coach Yoast
Petey Jones
Lewie Lastik
Start here...
Qualities of a good leader
What else do you think contributes to making a good leader?
“Process where an individual fulfils the expectations of a group, and creates an environment where the group is motivated, rewarded and helped to achieve its goals.
Types of Leader
Appointed by managers/coaches as they are seen to be the best person for the job.
Comes from within the group/team. Often has the respect of the other players and coaching staff.
Theories of Leadership
Trait Theory of Leadership
Behavioural Theory of Leadership
Interactional Theory of Leadership
Styles of Leadership
Strong views on how, and when things should be done
inflexible with approach to group
'do as i say'
Does not seek views of people within the group
Effect on group:
Members tend to be passive
Group members stop working when leader is not there
Tendancy to become aggressive with each other
Makes decisions after a period of consultation with group
Encourage involvement
Adopt informal and relaxed approach
"How do you think we can do this?"
Effect on group:
Group members contiue working when leader is not present
Are not aggressive when things are going wrong
"Great Man Theory"
Approach has received little support since the 1940s, now generally accepted that there is no definitive set of traits that create a good leader
Good leaders are , not born.

This theory has its roots in ‘social learning theory’.

People can learn to be good leaders by observing others in a variety of situations.
Can anyone be taught to be a good leader?
Interactional theory discusses the interaction between the individual and their situation.
Leadership style dependent on situation, and the style the leader adopts
...develop relationships with the group. Communication is key. More effective with experienced athletes.
...meeting goals/targets. Make plans, decide on priorities and ensure there is productivity within the group.
....is a dynamic process that is reflected in the tendancy for a group to stick together and remain united in the pursuit of its goals and objectives
Social cohesion
relates to how well the team members enjoy each other's company
Recreational sport - team enjoy playing together regardless of whether they win or lose
Example from 'Remember the Titans'?
Other example from sport....
Task cohesion
relates to how well the team members work together to achieve a common goal
Example from Nature...
If you had to choose between task cohesion and social cohesion for your team, what would you choose?
Factors affecting cohesion
What factors could affect the cohesion of a group?
Carron's (1982) model of cohesion explains the factors effecting group cohesion
Environmental Factors

1. Rowing eights 2. Bobsleigh four
3. Volleyball team 4. Cricket team
5. Golf team 6. 4 x 100 m relay
7. Cycling team 8. Tennis doubles
9. Synchronised swimming team
2 min
Location: Groups that live in a close proximity and are smaller tend to be more cohesive as they have more opportunity to interact and form relationships
Personal Factors
Leadership Factors
Individual characteristics have an impact on group cohesion:
Motivation to achieve shared goal
Attitudes and opinions
Level of commitment
if all these are similar the group are more likely to be cohesive
Leadership style
Communication style
Compatibility of the coaches' and athletes' personalities
Team Factors
Carron (Social Psychology of Sport, 1980) defined a cohesive group as having the following characteristics:

a collective identity
a sense of shared purpose
structured patterns of communication
is Cohesion?
Trust and belief in each other.
Honesty, identifying problems early and collectively solve.
Well defined roles to ensure complete understanding
Environmental factors
Personal factors
Leadership factors
Team factors
Group Outcomes
Individual Outcomes
Carron's conceptual model of cohesion (1982)
According Carron's theory, how can the different factors influence cohesion?
Social Loafing
The Ringlemann effect
Steiner's model of group effectiveness
Write down 5 things a group needs to be successful and rank then in order from 1-5
1.....most important
2......little be less important
3.....little be less again
4.....and again
5.....and again
Write down what you think constitutes a successful team...
If you bring the best individual performers together you are likely to get the best team...
True or False?
Steiner (1972) proposed the following model which is helpful when looking at the relationship between the individuals and group performance.
losses due to faulty process
Actual productivity
potential productivity
refers to the perfect performance of the group based on the ability and skill level of the players and the resources available
potential productivity
For example, a non league team losing 4-0 to Chelsea might well be reaching their full potential but are not winning due to their limited resources.
refers to the issues that can get in the way of the team performing, preventing the team from reaching its potential performance.
losses due to faulty process
Losses are normally due to two main areas:
Motivational faults
Coordinational faults
These occur when some members of the team do not give 100% effort
These occur when players do no connect with their play, the team interacts poorly or ineffective strategies are used.

Sports that require more interaction/cooperation between players are more susceptable to coordinational faults.
How the team actually performs. Either the result, or the level of performance, or improvement,
Ringlemann (1913) completed research into group effectiveness in tug of war where it was found that a team of 8 did not pull 8 times as hard as solo performers.
1 man = 65kg each
2 men = 60kg each
3 men = 50kg each.....
As group size increases, the individual productivity in the group decreases
This is due to coordination faults or losses.

As the group gets larger, athletes can hide behind other athletes and not get noticed
Social loafing is when group members don't put in 100% effort when in a group or team-based situation
Have you ever experienced this? Be Honest!
Losses in Motivation
caused by the individual losing identity when placed in a group.
More evident when individual contributions cannot be checked
What were your reasons why you didn't "bother"?
What individuals would you expect to be social loafers?
What individuals would you expect to be social loafers?
Athetes with low self-confidence

Athletes who are afraid of failure

Athletes who are highly anxious

Athletes who feel they can't make a useful contribution to the overall performance of the team
What colour was the gun?

David Rudisha was seen breaking the 800m World Record, what country is he from?

What colour was GBR's Nicola Adams wearing?

What did Usain Bolt do as he crossed the line?

What shape did Victoria Pendleton make while stood on the podium?
Leaders are born with the skills necessary to take charge

Great leaders have personality traits that make them ideally suited for leadership in any situation.

Leadership traits are relatively stable personality dispositions such as intelligence, assertiveness, self-confidence and independence.
Put the following team sports in order depending on the level of interaction and cohesion needed to be successful.
In 2014, which U.K city hosted stage 1 of the Tour de France?

A: London
B: Leeds
C: Birmingham
D: Manchester
Who is this man?
Which sports event is famous for the following postcode?

Who is missing?????
Forbes 2013 Athletes Rich Lists
Full transcript