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Environmental Systems and Societies

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Lucas Keat

on 5 October 2014

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Transcript of Environmental Systems and Societies

Environmental Systems and Societies : Chapter Summaries
By : Lau Wai Keat
Chapter 1 :
Systems and
Models

Chapter 2 : The Ecosystem
Chapter 3 : Human populations , carrying capacity and resource use
Chapter 4 : Conservation and Biodiversity
Chapter 5 :
Pollution
Management

Chapter 6 :
The issue of
global warming

Chapter 7 : Environmental Value Systems
Systems
Models
Definition of Systems
Types of systems
Laws of Thermodynamics
Equilibrium in a system
A collection of different parts that work together to carry out a function.
Definition of a 'System'
Open Systems
Closed Systems
Isolated Systems
- A system that exchanges matter and energy with its surroundings.
- Most natural systems are classified as open systems.
- A system that exchanges energy but not matter with its surroundings.
- These do not exist naturally , but a planet may be seen as a closed system
- Systems that exchange neither matter nor energy with its surroundings

- These systems do not exist naturally
First Law of Thermodynamics
- Energy is neither created nor destroyed
- Energy is converted from one form to the other
- Energy within a system is constant, but the form of energy changes
Second Law of Thermodynamics
- Entropy within a system not in equilibrium will increase over time
- There is no such thing as a 100% efficient energy transfer/transformation
Steady State Equilibrium
Continuous inputs and outputs of energy and matter, but system fluctuates around a steady state
Static Equilibrium
There is no change or fluctuations in the condition of the system
Definition
The tendency of a system to return to its original change after a disturbance is introduced
Changes in a system
Feedbacks
Transfers
and
Transformations
A response in which a disturbance or situation is intensified , resulting in a more unstable system in which a new equilibrium is formed
A response in which a disturbance or situation is nullified or canceled out, returning the condition of the system back to its original equilibrium
The flow of energy and matter through a system that involves change in location but not the change in the form
The flow of energy and matter through a system involving a change in location and also the form
Positive Feedback
Negative Feedback
Transfer
Transformation
Definition
Simplified description designed to show structure or workings of an object system or concept.
Definition
Simplified description designed to show structure or workings of an object system or concept.
Structure
Biotic and Abiotic Components
Flows and Systems
Changes in the ecosystem
Definitions
Pyramids
Bioaccumulation vs Biomagnification
Range of scales of an ecosystem
Interaction of species in an ecosystem
Biotic
Living factors or components
Abiotic
Non living factors and components
Trophic Level
The position an organism or group of organisms in a community occupies in a food chain
Food chain
Shows the flow of energy from one organism to the next
Food web
Complex network of interrelated food chains
Producers
Organisms that are able to manufacture their own food from simple inorganic substances including sunlight
Consumers
Organisms tat feed on autotrophs or other organisms to obtain energy
Pyramid of biomass
Represents the standing stock of each trophic level measured in units such as grams of biomass per square metre
Pyramid of productivity
Represents the flow of energy through a trophic level and the rate at which stock is generated
Pyramid of Energy
Represents the standing stock measured in energy or as productivity measured in units of flow of energy
Bioaccumulation
The buildup of substances in organisms over time due to long-term exposure and absorption from environment, and ingestion of organisms containing the substance.
Biomagnification
The buildup of chemical concentration when moving up the trophic level, causing top trophic levels to e exposed to the highest concentration and eventual death.
Species
A type of organism
Niche
Responsibilities of an organism and its interaction with other organisms and abiotic factors
Community
Group of populations living and interacting with each other in a common habitat
Habitat
The environment where a species usually lives
Population
A group of organisms of the same species living in the same area
Ecosystem
A community of interdependent organisms and the abiotic factors in the environment in which they live
Parasitism
Interaction between two species , in which one species benefits on the expense of another
Mutualism
An interaction between two or more species , in which both or all benefit and none suffer.
Predation
The interaction where one animal eats another animal
Competition
The interaction where two or more organisms attempting to use the same resource
Herbivory
When an animal feeds on plants
Abiotic Factor
Biotic Factor
Definition
Non-living, physical and chemical factors of an ecosystem
Examples
Atmosphere
Climate
Soil Structure
and Chemistry
Water Chemistry
Level of pollutants
Identification
of
Organisms
Measuring
abundance
of organisms
Diversity
Taxonomy
The classification of species into categories upon similarities in their nutrition, cell structure, appearance and developmental features
Based on
1. Morphology
2. Physiology
3. Genetics
4. Biochemistry
Consider
1. Anatomical
2. Biochemical
3. Embryonic Development
4. Evolutionary relationships
Hierarchy of
Classification
The classification of species into categories upon similarities in their nutrition, cell structure, appearance and developmental features
Kingdom
Phylum
Class
Order
Family
Genus
Species
Why measure?
Measuring
abundance
of organisms
Capture / Mark /
Release /
Recapture
Quadrats
To make informed environmental management decisions
Overestimation of population would lead to over-exploitation of the population, resulting in extinction
Under-estimating the population can result in damage to human society and our dependence on the natural resources for survival
SECTION TO BE CONTINUED
Simpson's Diversity
Index
Definition
Number of species found in a particular area (
species

richness
) , the total number of each species present (
abundance
) , and how evenly the different species are spread in the area (
evenness
)
D = diversity index

N = total number of organisms of all species found

n = number of individuals of a particular species
Biomes
Tropical Rainforest
Desert
Temperate
Grassland
Temperate
Forest
Arctic Tundra
Photosynthesis
The general flow
Respiration
Producers
Organisms that are able to convert light
energy(solar) into chemical energy (food)
during photosynthesis
Consumers
Organisms that feed on autotrophs and or
other heterotrophs in order to obtain energy.
Decomposers
Organisms that obtain energy from dead organisms and are responsible for breakinig down dead organic matter and returning nutients and minerals to the soil
SECTION TO BE CONTINUED
Inputs : Water , carbon dioxide, chlorophyll , certain wavelengths of light

Outputs : Oxygen, chemical oxygen, water

Transformation :
Carbon dioxide+Water --> Glucose + Oxygen
Inputs : Organic matter (glucose) , oxygen

Outputs : Carbon dioxide, water, waste products

Transformation : Glucose is converted into energy

Transfer : Transfer of glucose
Biological Examples
Ecological Energetics
The study of energy flow and stoge in food chains and webs.
Biogeochemical cycles
Cycles that show the movement
of nutrients and energy through
the ecosystem.
The Carbon
Cycle
The nitrogen
cycle
Hydrological Cycle
Limiting factors &
Carrying
capacity
Strategists
&
Population
Curves
Succession
Limiting Factor
Carrying Capacity
Factors that limit or prevent a community , population or organism from growing larger.
The maximum number of species that an environment can sustainably support.
Density Dependent Factors
Factors that affect the population size based on the population density.
Density-independent Factors
Factors that affect the population size regardless of the population density.
Internal Factors
Include most density dependent factors such as fertility or size of breeding territory
External factors
Includes most density independent factors, predation and disease.
Predation
Disease
Availability of
Resources
Space
Weather
Earthquake
Floods
Natural
Disasters
K - strategists
R strategists
Larger, fewer offspring
Reproduce at a later stage in their longer lifespans
Well adapted to
environmental conditions
High parental care and survival rate
High ability to compete
Have specialised niches
Population sizes are stable and usually around the carrying capacity
Smaller organisms and fewer offspring
Reproduce earlier in their short lifespans.
Provide little or no parental care
Most die before
reproductive age
Low ability to compete
Early successional
species
Population size fluctuate wildly
Definition
The orderly succession of species toward a climax community (biome) over time or as a sequence of communities (sera) with each transition community as a seral stage.
Types of Succession
Communities of Succession
Primary Succession
Secondary Succession
Succession from bare rock which are exposed by geological activities
Succession that begins from soil from which a previous community has been removed .
Pioneer Community
Climax Community
Unfavourable Conditions
Biomass increase quickly
Inefficient Energy Consumption
r- strategist
Low species , habitat and genetic diversity
Optimal
conditions
Biomass
Stable
Efficient energy
consumption
Nutrient cycling
present
k- strategists
High species, habitat and genetic diversity
Population Dynamics
Resources
Energy Resources
The soil system
Food resource
Water resource
Environmental Demands by Humans
Nature of population growth
Demographics
Models
Humans and many species go through exponential growth or geometric growth.

This occurs because species are living in optimal conditions in terms of food , water and space.
Limiting Factors
Factors that stop or reduce population growth.
Density dependent limiting factors
Often biotic and effects will increase as populations increase in size.

Usually acts as negative feedback mechanisms
Internal Factors
Factors that act within a species (intraspecific competition)
- e.g. territory, fertility etc.
External Factors
Factors that act between different species
- e.g. predation, disease etc.
Density Independent Limiting Factors
- Tend to be abiotic and effects do not depend on the density of a population
- e.g. weather, climate, natural disasters etc.
Population Growth Curves
S - curve (Sigmoid curve)
- Exponential growth at first but growth slows gradually

- Gradual stabilizing shows reach towards carrying capacity

- Population growth is slowed by environmental resistance factor.
J - curve ('Boom and bust' curve)
- Exponential growth at first but with drastic drop later , termed as 'dieback'

- Diebacks caused by rapid rate at which carrying capacity is reached and overshot of c.c.

- Humans are displaying J-curve growth
Study of the dynamics of population change
Main factors affecting population size
Birth rate
Death rate
Immigration
Emigration
Crude Birth Rate
Number of births per thousand individuals in a population per year.
Crude Death Rate
Number of deaths per thousand individuals per year
Natural increase rate
Gives the natural increase rate as a percentage

CBR - CDR = NIR
Doubling Time
Time it takes in years for the population to double in size
Total Fertility
Rate
Average number of children each woman has over her lifetime
Population Pyramids
Show how many individuals are alive in different age groups and gender in a country for a given year .
Demographic Transition Model
Describes the pattern of decline in mortality and fertility of a country as a result of social and economic development
Natural Income
Yield or harvest or services provided by the environment.
Natural Capital
Goods and services that are not manufactured but have value to humans.
Renewable Resources
Living resources that can be replaced or are able to restock themselves
Replenishable Resources
Resources that may restock themselves but over a long period of time
Non-renewable resource
Resources that exist in finite amounts on Earth and are not renewed or replaced after they are depleted.
Dynamic nature of the value of a resource
Value of a resource may change as time passes

Several factors might affect the value of a resource

- Technology

- Culture

- Demand

etc.
Economic Value
Having marketable goods or services
Ecological Value
Providing life-supporting services
Scientific/Technological Value
Useful for applications
Intrinsic Value
Having cultural, aesthetic, spiritual or philosophical values
Sustainability
Sustainable Development
Development that meets current needs without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their needs without degrading the environment.
Living in a way that we can do so indefinitely by utilizing the environment in a manner that we allow it to replenish itself.
Oil : 37%
Coal : 25%
Natural Gas : 23%
Nuclear : 5%
Renewable energy : 15%
Soil Profile
Soil Horizon
Soil Texture
Soil degradation
Soil conservation measures
Major components of soil
Translocation
Salinization
Leaching
Eluviation Layer
Podsol
Gley soil
Ferallization
Movement of water up and down the layers of the soil.

If precipitation < evaporation, water moves up

If precipitation > evaporation, water moves down
The phenomenon where dissolved minerals are carried to soil surfaces by water and then left when water is evaporated, causing an increase in dissolved mineral concentration.
The phenomenon where water carries dissolved minerals as it flows down the soil , resulting in a mineral deficient layer in the soil.
The layer of soil where mineral is lost due to leaching , also called the eluvial layer.

Layer where minerals are deposited is called the illuvial / illuviation layer.


The acidic layer of soil due to intense eluviation formed through podsolization , resulting in a nutrient poor and bleached A and B horizon full of iron oxide which is red.
The soil layer which is water logged due to inability to drain away water, causing anaerobic reaction of iron oxide being reduced to become blue-grey
The process where sequestered iron and aluminum oxide is left in soil after intense silica leaching in which the silica was formed from breakdown of clay caused by high precipitation and temperature.
O horizon
Mineral Particles
Organic Matter
Water
Air
Newly added organic matter (leaf,litter,flowers etc.)
A horizon
Characterised by the buildup of humus
mull humus : High alkaline humus
mor humus : Low alkaline humus
E horizon
Not always present, layer where minerals and organic material have been leached from the soil.

Pale in colour which is mostly silica
B horizon
Layer where soluble minerals and organic matter is deposited from above leached layers.

Mostly clay and iron salts are deposited.
C horizon
mainly weathered rock from which the soil forms
R horizon
parent material (bedrock)
Sand
Clay
Silt
Loam
Gritty
Fall apart easily
Ensure good drainage and water supply
Sticky
Retains water and supplies nutrients
Slippery when wet
Hold together better than sandy soils
Hold saand clay particles together
Fairly equal proportions of silt, sand and clay
Fairly fertile
Drain well
Can be worked easily
Used as agricultural soil
Degrading soil conditions
Soil erosion
Sheet Wash
Gullying
Wind Erosion
Caused by human activities
overgrazing - loss of vegetation
deforestation - removal of trees
Large areas of surface soil washed away during heavy storms , moving as landslides
Channels created as a result of rainfall
Surface layer of dry soils removed by high winds
Overcropping
Deplete soil nutrients
Free soil fertility
Unsustainable Agriculture
Example
Total removal of crops
Growing crops in rows
Ploughing in the direction of slope
Excessive use of pesticide
Irrigation
Soil conditioners
Wind reduction
Improved cultivation techniques
Improved Irrigation
Example :
Lime (reduce acidity fr acid rain)
Organic material (Nutrients)
Example :
Planting trees and bushes
Alternating low and high crops
Build fences
Examples :
Cover crops
Terracing
Ploughing
Contour farming
Careful planning to reduce evaporation and desalinization .
Imbalance of food distribution
Aquatic vs Terrestrial Food production
Food production systems
Social systems and Food production
LEDC
MEDC
Famine and hunger rampant
Populations struggle to produce food
Arable land is scarce
Crops grown are mostly exported for profit
Food is expensive
Wastage of food widespread
Food is affordable and readily available
People choose food based on preference and not nutritional need
Over-nourished populations causing sicknesses
Terrestrial Food Production Systems are efficient

- Food harvested at first (crops) or second(meat) trophic level
Aquatic food production systems are less efficient

-
Most food is harvested from top trophic levels
- Less solar energy penetrates water to reach producers
Subsistence
Cash cropping
Intensive
Extensive
Population
Agricultural
Methods
Economy
High population causes high demand, and thus intensive farming practices are used.

Lower population eliminates need for intensive farming.
Culture
Culture and traditions of a population determines which agricultural practice is used

- Culture which consumes grains require less intensive methods
Determines fertility of soil

Determines the output of agricultural sector
Agriculture dependent economies drive higher production of food

More intensive agricultural methods are chosen to ensure high yield

Less attention is paid to sustainable use of land
70 % of Earth's surface is covered with water
3 % of it is freshwater
97% of it is saltwater
69 % of the fresh water are stored in polar ice caps
30% of freshwater are found as groundwater
0.3 % of freshwater are found in lakes, rivers and swamps
0.001% of Earth's water is found in the atmosphere
Ecological Footprint
Definition
Area of land required to sustainably provide all a population's resources and assimilate its wastes
Includes
Bioproductive Land
Bioproductive Sea
Energy Land
Built Land
Biodiversity
Depends On
Population size
Consumption per capita
Creditors
Debtors
Classification of countries
Countries that have a smaller footprint than their biocapacity (living capacity or natural resources)
Countries that have a larger footprint than living capacity
- Unsustainable
Definition
A world view or set of paradigms that shapes the way an individual or group of people perceive and evaluate issues
E.V.S as a system
Environmental Philosophies
Inputs
Outputs
Education
Cultural Influences
Religious Doctrines
Media
Decisions
Perspectives
Course of Action
Major
Categories
Minor
Categories
Ecocentrism
Anthropocentrism
Technocentrism
Deep ecologist
Self-reliant soft ecologists
Environmental Managers
Cornucopia
Biodiversity
in
Ecosystems

Evaluating biodiversity and vulnerability
Conservation Measures
Definitions
Biodiversity
The number of species of different animals and plants in different places.
Genetic Diversity
Range of genetic material present in a species or population, referred to as gene pool
Species Diversity
Number of different species within a given habitat
Habitat Diversity
Number of different habitats per unit area.
Natural Selection
The phenomenon where organisms adapted to the surrounding environment has an advantage to those that are less adapted.
Speciation
Formation of species causing inability to interbreed, due to a gradual change that separates populations over a long time.
Isolation
Separation of populations due to physical , geographical barriers or reproductive factors such as mating seasons.
Tectonic Plates
and
Biodiversity
Convection in the outer core causes the outer solid mantle and crust to move as much as 50 - 100 mm per year . (Continental Drift)
The supercontinent Pangea broke up and continents experienced new climatic conditions.
Plates may slide past each other, diverge or converge forming mountains and ocean trenches.
Plate tectonics causes physical barriers and land bridges.
Physical barriers causes isolation and thus speciation. Land bridges allows the movement of organisms (e.g. Bears from North to South America)
Ecosystem stability, diversity, succession and habitat.
Ecosystem Stability
The ability of an ecosystem to remain stable, maintaining biodiversity and environmental harmony between organisms
Habitat Diversity & Ecosystem Stability
The greater the habitat diversity, the greater the species and genetic diversity, the greater the niche diversity , creating a stable environment.
Food web and ecosystem stability
The more complex a food web, the more resilient it is to the loss of a species, or reduction in population size.
Limiting factors and
ecosystem stability
The ability to obtain resource determines the stability of the ecosystem
Inertia (Ecosystem)
The ability of an ecosystem to withstand/resist change when subjected to a disrupted force.
Factors leading to loss of biodiversity
Species Extinction
Conditions that result in extinction
Factors to determine conservation status
Natural Hazards
Habitat
Habitat loss
Overpopulation
Habitat fragmentation
Overexploitation
Hunting
Harvesting of food resources
Logging
Agriculture
Monoculture
Fertilizers and pesticides
Genetically modified species
Pollution
Destroy and degrades habitats
Climate change alters weather patterns
Introduction of non-native species
Causes instability
Disrupts ecological interactions and niches
Vulnerability of tropical rainforests
Demand of timber is high , 50% of all timber is found in tropical rainforests
Relied upon for subsistence cultivation
Mass Extinction
Background extinction
Background extinction rate
Natural extinction rate of all species
Estimated using fossil records
Statistics
5000 mammals alive today
Background extinction rate is estimated 1 per 200 year
89 ammalian extinctions in the past 400 years
Causes
Natural disasters
Drastic change in climatic conditions resulting in inability for species to adapt
5 Mass Extinctions
1st
Holordovician-Silurian period
440 million years ago
25% of all families extinct
2nd
Devonian Period
364 million years ago
19% of all families extinct
3rd
Permian-Triassic Period
251 million years ago
95% of all species extinct and 54% of all families extinct
4th
End Triassic period
199-214 million years ago
23% of all families and some vertebrates extinct
5th
Cretaceous-Tertiary period
65 million years ago
17% of all families and all large animals including dinosaurs extinct
Narrow Geographical Range
Small population size or declining numbers
Low population densities and large territories
Large bodied species
Low reproductive potential
Seasonal migrants
Poor dispersers
Hunted for food or sport
Reduction in population size
Number of mature individuals
Geographic range and degree of fragmentation
Quality of habitat
Area of occupancy
Probability of extinction
Population size
Why conserve biodiversity?
Protecting biodiversity
Environmental
Monitors
Ethical/Intrinsic Value
Food Sources
Humans eat both animals and plants
Biodiversity as primary food source later
Natural Products
Used for medicines, fertilizers and pesticides
Derive into sources of energy , rubber, honey, silk etc.
Ecosystem productivity
Soil aeration by worms
Pollination by insects
Plants recapture carbon dioxide
Waste recycled by decomposers
etc.
Scientific and Educational Value
Source of knowledge
Biological Control Agents
Controls the spread of invasive species
Genes
Preserve genes for hybridization and genetic engineering
Serve as early warning systems
Monitors pollution etc.
Each species have the right to exist
GOs and NGOs
Greenpeace
WWF
UNEP
UNESCO
Captive Breeding, Reintroduction and zoos
Setting up protected areas
size (area)
Numbers (species)
Fragmentation
Edge effects
Shape
Proximity
Corridors
Criterion :
Nature of Pollution
Detection and Monitoring of Pollution
Approach to Pollution Management
Eutrophication
Solid Domestic Waste
Depletion of Stratospheric Ozone
Urban Air Pollution
Acid Deposition
Pollution
The addition to the biosphere a substance or agent by human activity at a greater rate than which it can be deemed harmless towards the surrounding environment.
Major sources of pollution
Point source pollution
Release of pollutants from a single clearly identifiable site
Non-point source pollution
Release of pollutants from numerous, widely dispersed origins
Combustion of fossil fuels
Pollutants :

CO2, SO2, N2O3,Photochemical smog

Effects :
Greenhouse gas - global warming
Acid deposition / acid rain
Domestic Waste
Pollutants :

Organic Waste

Effects :
Eutrophication
Water-borne diseases
Industrial Waste
Pollutants :

Heavy metals, fluorides, lead, acids

Effects :
Poisoning
Reduced solubility of gases in water
Agricultural Waste
Pollutants :

Nitrates , organic waste, pesticides

Effects :
Eutrophication
Disease spread
Bioaccumulation
Direct Measurement
Indirect Measurement
Record the amount of pollutant in water, air and soil.
Examples
Acidity of rainwater
Amount of CO2 present in atmosphere
Record changes in abiotic or biotic factor resulting from pollutants
Biochemical Oxygen Demand
The measure of the amount of dissolved oxygen required to break down the organic matter in a given volume of water through aerobic biological activity
Definition
Commonly used to detect polluting capacity of effluent


Greater the pollutant, the more oxygen consuming miobes are required to break it down, the greater the BOD

Mass of dissolved oxygen consumed per litre of water
Indicator species
Plants and animals that show the condition of the environment based on their presence absence abundance or scarcity
Definition
Biotic Index


Gives the measure of the quality of an ecosystem by the presence and abundance of the species living in it

Replace
Alter human activity through education, incentives and penalties to promote :

Development of alternative technologies
Adoption of alternative lifestyles
Reducing , reusing , and recycling
Regulate
Regulate and reduce pollutants at point of emission by :

Imposing standards
Introducing measures for extracting pollutants from waste emissions
Restore
Clean up pollutants and restore ecosystem by :

Extracting and removing the pollutant from the ecosystem
Replanting flora and restocking animal populations
Definition
Process
Effects
Strategies
Addition of excess nutrients to a freshwater ecosystem , usually a natural process but anthropogenic eutrophication increases the rate at which eutrophication happens.
Fertilizers wash into
river or lake
High levels of phosphate allow algae to grow faster
More food for zooplankton and small animals, fishes multiply causing less zooplankton to eat algae
Algae then die and are decomposed by aerobic bacteria.
Not enough oxygen in water and food chain collapse
Dead organic matter form sediments and turbidity increases
All life is gone and the sediments settle to leave a clear blue lake
Algal blooms block light and plants die
Unsightly rivers, ponds and lakes
Releases bad-smelling gas like hydrogen sulphide
Oxygen deficient water
Loss of biodiversity and shortened food chains
Death of plants
Death of aerobic organisms
Increased turbidity of water
Replace
Alternative methods of enhancing crop growth.

Alternative detergents
Regulate
Sewage treatment processes that remove nitrates and phosphates from wastes
Restore
Pumping mud from eutrophic lakes and reintroducing plant and fish species
Types of Waste
MEDC vs LEDC
Managing Solid Domestic Waste
Industrial Waste
Ashes
Scrap metal
Wooden shavings
Defective materials
Municipal Waste
Paper (32.7%)
Yard Trimmings (12.8%)
Glass (5%)
Food scrap (12.5%)
Plastic (12.1%)
Metal (8%)
Leather (6%)
Wood (5.6%)
Other (3.2%)
MEDC
Trash buried in landfills or burnt in incinerators
LEDC
Dumped in unregulated open pits
People pick through and try selling anything of value
Recycling
Collection and separating of waste material for reuse
Aluminum is cost effective material to recycle
Landfill
Taken to a suitable site and buried.
Lined up with plastic to prevent leakage
Incinerator
Burn in high temperatures up to 2000°C
Used for electrical generation
Composting
Put into anaerobic digesters
Methane formed used as fuel
Waste used as fertilizer or soil conditioner
Role of the ozone layer
Ozone and Halogenated Gas
Managing Ozone Depletion
Found in the troposphere and the stratosphere
Ozone is considered a pollutant in the troposphere
Where is it?
In the stratosphere, it blocks incoming ultraviolet radiation
Protects life from damaging UV radiation.
Role ?
UV is absorbed during formation and destruction of ozone and oxygen
Under influence of UV, oxygen breaks down into oxygen atoms
Oxygen atoms are reactive so they combine with an oxygen molecule to form ozone (O3)
How?
Causes skin cancer
Mutation
Damage to photosynthetic organisms especially phytoplankton
Health consequences of UV
Halogenated organic gases that are originally stable can liberate halogen atoms when exposed to UV radiation in the stratosphere.
Halogen atoms react with monoatomic oxygen and slow the rate of o-zone reformation.
Halogen atoms disturb the equilibrium of ozone production and enhances destruction of ozone
Common pollutants :

1.Hydrochlorofluorocarbon

2. Halons

3. Methyl Bromide
Montreal Protocol 1987


Freeze production of CFC and halon products by 2000
Photochemical Smog
Urban Pollution Flowchart
Formation
Effects
Mixture of about 100 primary and secondary pollutants under influence of sunlight
Ozone is the main pollutant
Frequency and severity depend on local topography, climate, population density and fossil fuel use
Thermal inversions trap smogs in Valleys and concentrations of air pollutants can build to harmful even lethal levels
When absorbed by plant leaves, degrades chlorophyll and productivity is reduced
Causes reduced lung function , eye, nose, and throat irritation at low levels
At higher concentrations, smog causes cough and reduce the ability to concentrate
Volatile Organic Compound hit by sunlight (UV) forms smog
Photochemical smog
Contains O3 (ozone)
Reactivity is high
Common Pollutants
Carbon
Monoxide
Carbon
Dioxide
Water
Vapour
Nitrogen
Oxide
Sulphur
Oxide
Particulate
Matter
Hydrocarbon
Wet Deposition
Dry Deposition
Sources
of
Pollutants
Effects
Pollution
Management
Strategy
Deposition of acid in the form of
rain or snow .
Deposition of acid as gas or dry
particles
Primary Air Pollutants
Secondary Air Pollutants
Those emitted directly into the
atmosphere
- Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxides
Contributed by :
Combustion of fossil fuel

Pollutants formed when primary pollutants react with the atmosphere
Sulphur dioxide combine with oxygen to form sulphur trioxide
Sulphur dioxide and trioxide combine with water to form sulphuric and sulphurous acid
Nitrogen oxide combine with water to form nitric acid.
Direct Effect
Degrades chlorophyll
Microbes in soil die
Reduces availability of nutrients
Reducing the ability of soil to hold onto nutrients such as calcium,magnesium and potassium
Toxic Effects
Acid rain decreases pH making aluminum ions more soluble, releasing it from soil to end up in streams and rivers
Fish are sensitive to aluminum.
Disturbs fish's ability to regulate the amount of water and salt in their body
Solid formed on fish gills , leading to death by suffocation.

Primary Air Pollutants
Those emitted directly into the
atmosphere
- Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxides
Contributed by :
Combustion of fossil fuel

Reduce combustion of fossil fuels
Pre-combustion technique aimed at removing pollutants before burned
'End of Pipe'
Technique to remove pollutants before releasing into the atmosphere
Normal Greenhouse Effect
Humans and greenhouse gases
Potential Effect of Global Temperature
Increase

Pollution Management
A normal effect that maintains the mean global surface temperature.
Caused by gases in the atmosphere reducing heat losses by radiation back into space, by trapping heat reflected from the Earth surface.
Greenhouse gases absorb infrared radiation radiated from the Earth's surface , heat is passed to other atmospheric gases
45% of incoming light absorbed.

55% of it reaches the surface, 4% reflected, 51 % absorbed for photosynthesis, heating and evaporation.
Human activities increase the amount of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.
Some greenhouse gases contributed are carbon dioxide, water vapour, methane , chlorofluorocarbons.
CFC created by humans destroy the ozone layer and act as greenhouse gases in the tropophere

Have high Global Warming Potential
Methane increasing about 1% per year due to human activities (60% from human and 15% from cattle)
The combustion of fossil fuels is the largest contributor of carb onto the atmosphere .
Human activity disrupted the balance of the global carbon cycle , through increased combustion and land use changes (including deforestation)
Oceans and Sea Levels
Rising sea levels due to increased temperatures causing water to expand (thermal expansion) and ice from polar caps to melt
Oceans are becoming more acidic as they absorb more carbon produced by anthropogenic activities
Effects on polar ice caps
Melting of ice in Antarctica and Greenland causes sea levels to rise
Slows and stop the North Atlantic Drift current by diluting salt water.
Open up trade routes and allow for exploitation of undersea minerals and fossil fuels reserves
Releases methane trapped under the Arctic ocean floor
Food Production
Increase rate of biochemical reactions so photosynthesis should increase
Respiration will also increase thereforethere may be no increase in NPP
Crop growing season in Europe expanded.
Planktons may die causing disruptions in marine food webs
Effects on Biodiversity and Ecosystems
Animals would move to cooler regions, plants will not
Distribution of plants can shift with seed dispersal
Polar species may be extinct in the wild.
Birds and butterflies shift to higher altitudes
Plants break their winter dormancy earlier
Droughts increase, wildfire increase
Effects on human health
Malaria, yellow fever , and dengue fever spread to higher latitudes
Wetter climates would have increased fungal diseases
Warmer temperatures in higher latitudes would have a lower mortality rate from the cold
Heating bills for houses would also decrease.
Effects on human migration
At regions where food and water could not be obtained, mans would move the other regions that can.
Global migration of environmental refugees would be possible.
IPCC estimates that a 150 million refugees from climate change in 2050.
Effects on national economies
Economies would suffer if water supplies decrease and drought occurs.
New resources such as t sands in Canada and Siberia are opened up
Agricultural production may increase in higher lattittudes but fall in the tropics
Providing infrastructures to combat climate change may strain taxpayers money
Increased tourism in cooler countries
Kyoto Protocol
International agreement to lower carbon emissions and emissions of other greenhouse gases to combat climate change.
Carbon taxes
Encourage producers to reduce emissions of carbon dioxide
Implemented by taxing the burning of fossil fuel
Carbon trading
Carbon offset
schemes
Attempts to create a market in which permits issued by governments to emit carbon dioxide can be traded.
Designed to neutralize the effects if the carbon dioxide human activities produced by investing in projects that cut emissions elsewhere
Controlling the amount of atmospheric pollution
Increasing forest cover
Developing alternative renewable energy sources
Subsection
Affects
Related to
Applied in
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