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Copy of Crossing The Chasm

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Sam Dawson

on 12 March 2015

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Transcript of Copy of Crossing The Chasm

Sporting Example.
The Lactic acid system is used in events such as the 400m sprint. This race requires you to keep up a high intensity maximul effort of sprinting for the entire distance. Its important to train your lactic acid system so you would be able to participate in high intense exercises for a low amount of time and by training in this system, it will hopefully prevent the onset of lactic acid causing fatigue in the muscle.
Crossing The Chasm

Btec Sport Style
ATP (Adenosine Triphosphate)
Energy System
Phosphocreatine System
Lactic Acid System
Sporting example
Aerobic System
During exercise ATP lasts for approximately 2-3 seconds, so you would find yourself better suited to short distance running or any sport which involves short bursts of energy. For example the 100m race due to energy being used over a short period of time. ATP is recycled for a continuos amount of use, it works anaerobically as the glycogen is converted to glucogen before breaking down into ATP energy. When the bond is broken, the energy is released. ATP can only be used as an energy source when there is plenty of oxygen available.
ATP= Adenosine+ Phosphate+ Phosphate+ Phosphate.
ADP= creatine phosphate= ATP + creatine.


The lactic acid is a short term energy system but requires high intense sporting exercises over a period of time. The body switches to glycogen to fuel the working muscles, the breakdown of glycogen provides energy to rebuild atp from adp. ATP can be made by the partial breakdown of Glucose and Glycogen, this is an anaerobic process. Around 60-90 seconds of maximul work is possible with this system. However the glycogen stored in the liver and muscles must be converted through the process of glycolysis.
Glucose=2atp+2 lactic acid+heat
Glucose=3atp+ 2 lactic acid+ Heat
Lactic Acid is a limiting factor of the anaerobic system, it accumulates and diffuses into the tissue fluid and blood. If it's not removed it can hinder muscle contraction and cause fatigue, people may feel a burning sensation in the muscles during exercise.
ATP and creatine phosphate make up the ATP-PCr system, creatine is a high energy compound which is needed when exercising at high intensity or energy needs are instant. Creatine Phosphate is stored in the muscle and broken down to provide the energy needed to make ATP. When high energy bond is broken, the energy it releases is used to resynthesize ATP. Explosive movements can be achieved, however one disadvantage of the system is that the supply of phosphocreatine is limited meaning ten seconds of activity is the maximum.

ATP-->ADP+Pi+ENERGY
A sporting example would be in weight lifting when you are lifting a certain amount of weight which requires a quick short burst of energy to be able to lift the bar. ATP doesnt need to be resynthesized because the lift only lasts for a couple of seconds, meaning there isnt a need to enter the ATP-PC system which lasts up to ten seconds.
Sporting Example
You use this in sport when you are running in the 100metre race. This is due to the 100m sprint usually only requiring 10 seconds of intense exercise, which means that the resynthesis of ATP can be carried out before lactic acid causes fatigue in the muscle.
This is a long term energy system which calls on both oxygen and glucose to create energy. ATP is released at a slow rate so that you can perform on events lasting for a long amount of time. This system utilises fats, proteins and carbohydrates for the rysnthesisation of ATP. One of the advantages of the system is that it produces carbon dioxide and water which are excreted and do not affect the ability of the muscle to contract. Mitochondria are small power stations responsible for converting food into energy which is another advantage of the system, the only disadvantage for this season is that it can sometimes take a few minutes for the heart to deliver oxygen to the working muscles. The more efficient your heart is the longer you will be able to perform due to the amount of blood your heart can pump.




Glucose+ oxygen=38ATP+ CO2+ Water+ Heat.
Fatty Acids+Oxygen=129 ATP+ CO2 + Water + Heat
Sporting Example of Aerobic System
A sporting example of the aerobic system is running in marathons. You would use oxygen and glucose to run in this events. Alot of invasion games lasting over 90 minutes need the aerobic system to perform to high levels over a long period of time.
References
http://uk.ask.com/wiki/Phosphocreatine
http://www.brianmac.co.uk/lactic.htm
http://www.ptdirect.com/training-design/anatomy-and-physiology/energy-systems/the-aerobic-system


This diagram illustrates that the body maintains a continuous supply of energy through the use of ATP (adenosine triphosphate).
ATP can be used for many things. A reaction between an adenosine diphosphate molecule and a phosphate.
When the bond is broken, energy is released, which then allows the phosphate to resynthesize and create ATP for the next contraction

Analysis of Energy System
This graph shows that the ATP store creates the maximum amount of energy production but lasts for the shortest period of time (2 seconds). The ATP-PC system doesn't reach the same level of energy production (75%) as the ATP store but lasts for longer (10 seconds), the lactic acid system displays around 50% of energy production compared to the ATP-PC system, however it lasts for 60-90 seconds. What the graph does show is once the lactic acid system reaches its maximul energy production there is a sharp decline due to the onset of lactic acid and muscle fatigue. Finally the Aerobic System more or less stays the same level of energy production but can last up to 2-3 hours as it relies on food to create energy.
Not all sports use one system during the activity, however use or require a percentage of each of the systems, for example basketball requires 60% of ATP-PC system due to explosive movements such as jumping or sprinting, it also uses 20% lactic acid system due to movement around the key and going from defence to attack, because the game lasts for 4 quarters 20% of the aerobic system is required

Kreb Cycle & Electron Transport Chain
Kreb’s Cycle- This stage is the preparation for the resynthesis of ATP. Oxidation occurs within the Mitochondria, which removes hydrogen atoms so that the system is ready for the last stage. CO2 is produced and the lungs push out the waste products which then enable two molecules of ATP to be resynthesized. Hydrogen and electron atoms are paired together.
Electron Transport Chain- once this happens the oxygen combines with the hydrogen ions to produce water and 32 ATP. Overall 38 molecules of ATP are produced which is more than the Lactic Acid System which resynthesizes 2 molecules of ATP, the ATP-PC system also, which resynthesizes 1 molecule of ATP.

Advantages- A lot of ATP is produced under aerobic conditions, this means the athlete can keep up a steady intensity for up to several hours without the onset of fatigue, and another advantage is that fatigue can be prolonged by carbohydrate overloading. Eventually you will run out of energy, but there are no bi-products which allow the athlete to perform for up to an hour without fatiguing.
Disadvantages- Only a small amount of energy for high intensity shot duration exercise, meaning the athlete cannot performat a high level for very long unlike the ATP-PC system. Another disadvantage is that there is a combination of fatty acid and glycogen, this means that once the glycogen has been used, the body would start using fatty acids which can result in muscle spasms
.

Advantages- No oxygen is needed so the athlete won’t be effected by loss of energy levels, which is good as it allows short bursts of energy to be produced so he can maintain the energy for up to 3-10 seconds. Another advantage is that there are no bi-products produced so recovery is not delayed. The final advantage is that ATP can be created allowing for the athlete to work at his maximum for up to ten seconds.
Disadvantages- Only a small amount of Phosphocreatine is stored meaning that it can only last for 3-10 seconds, once the period is up the athlete will feel fatigued. Another disadvantage is that one molecule of ATP is resynthesized for every molecule of phosphocreatine, meaning that it will take some time for the ATP to build up again. Another disadvantage is that the resynthesize of Phosphocreatine can only take place when there is a sufficient amount of oxygen, meaning it can only be resynthesized after exercise stops because a short activity requires no oxygen so once the activity stops, oxygen can be available in order to resynthesize Phosphocreatine.

Advantages- No oxygen is required so the athlete won’t have to wait for oxygen to restore their levels because energy can be created for 3 minutes. This is good as energy can last for 3 minutes before the athlete would begin to fatigue. Another advantage is that extra bursts of pace are produced during races, this can help as the athlete is able to use the energy to gain an advantage.
Disadvantages- Lactic acid builds up after exercise once the glycogen is broken down. This is a problem as the athlete will feel fatigued and his muscles will tighten quicker, meaning the athlete will have to stop or slow down with the activity. This can effect sporting situations such as marathons when the athlete would feel muscle fatigue as his lactic acid system would feel exhausted. Another disadvantage would be muscle fatigue could result in injuries, meaning the athlete would have to stop.

Juan Martin Del Potro
Juan Martin Del Potro would use all the energy systems in one rally as firstly when serving he would require ATP as he would need an explosive movement to generate the right amount of power and force behind his serve to work his opponent, then he would need to turn to his ATP-PC system because he would need power and agility to push off so that he is able to return the ball once the opponent hits it back fromhis serve. The lactic acid would be needed when the rally starts, rallies usuallylast for around 20-30 shots so this system would be needed to allow Juan to perform for long periods without the added onset of muscle fatigue which would forced Juan to retire from the point. Juan would only need to use the Aerobic system if the Game point lasts for longer than an hour as his muscles will be more prone to fatigue, this system is highly unlikely to be used.
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