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Copy of Madeleine Leiningers Culture Care Theory

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Vivane Debe

on 2 April 2013

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Transcript of Copy of Madeleine Leiningers Culture Care Theory

Leininger's four nursing metaparadigm concepts of person, environment, health, and nursing. Four metaparadigm concepts Dr. Leininger wrote the first books on transcultural nursing.
She developed and launched the first undergraduate and graduate courses and programs in transcultural nursing beginning in the 1970s. Introduced the idea of studying emic generic (folk) and etic professional care differences and similarities to reduce the care gaps and conflict areas that can be non therapeutic to clients. She saw the need to establish the Transcultural Nursing Society (TCN) as the official organization of the new discipline in 1974. The TCN society today is the major organization in this discipline with theory and research to advance transcultural nursing science. Dr. Leininger established and was the first editor of the Journal of Transcultural Nursing. Dr. Madeleine Leininger has received many outstanding awards and honors and has been nominated for the Nobel Prize for her significant and worldwide breakthrough encouraging health disciplines to study and practice transcultural health care. She was named a “Living Legend” by the American Academy of Nursing in 1998 Accomplishments of Dr. Leininger The nurse asks an individual, family, or community to describe their own experience about health and caring
The nurse then documents the description of an individual’s, family’s, or community’s cultural and social structure that influence health patterns and concern Leininger’s Assessment Process Information on culture is essential for holistic assessment of an individual, family, or community
The assessment process must be comprehensive, accurate, and systemic
Individual’s, family’s, or community’s perspective of their culture is needed for an accurate assessment. ASSESSMENT OF CLIENTS Care always occurs in a cultural context
Culture is viewed as framework people use to solve human problems
Culture is “the lifeways of an individual or a group with reference to values, beliefs, norms, patterns, and practices” (Leininger, 1997, p. 38) Application of Theory Leiningers theory includes a model called the sunrise enabler. It serves as a conceptual guide or cognitive map to guide nurses in the systematic study of all dimensions of the theory. THE SUNRISE ENABLER The Culture Care Diversity and Universality theory focuses on describing, explaining and predicting nursing similarities and differences focused primarily on human care and caring in human cultures.
The Culture Care Diversity & Universality theory does not focus on medical symptoms, disease entities or treatments.
It is instead focused on those methods of approach to care that means something to the people to whom the care is given. The Theory Dr. Leininger was the first professional nurse with a graduate preparation to complete a PhD in anthropology.
She brought nursing and anthropology together and coined the term transcultural nursing as an essential formal area of study and practice.
Her Culture Care Diversity & Universality theory was one of the earliest nursing theories and it remains the only theory focused specifically on transcultural nursing with a culture care focus. Her theory is used worldwide. Madeleine Leininger,





Culture Care Theory Madeleine Leininger’s CULTURAL NURSING Culturally congruent (nursing) care is defined as ‘those cognitively based assistive, supportive, facilitative or enabling acts or decisions that are tailor-made to fit with individual, group or institutional cultural values, beliefs and lifeways in order to provide or support meaningful, beneficial and satisfying health care or well-being services’. PROFESSIONAL NURSING Professional nursing care is defined as ‘formal and cognitively learned professional care knowledge and practice skills, obtained through educational institutions, that are expected to provide assistive, supportive, enabling or facilitative acts to or for another individual or group in order to improve a human health condition (or well-being), disability, lifeway or to work with dying clients’. CONCEPT OF NURSING Defined as ‘a learned humanistic and scientific profession and discipline focused on human care phenomena and caring activities in order to assist, support, facilitate or enable individuals or groups to maintain or regain their health or well-being in culturally meaningful and beneficial ways, or to help individuals face handicaps or death’. CONCEPT OF ENVIRONMENT Society or environment are not terms that are defined by Leininger but she instead speaks of worldview, social structure and environmental context.
The concept of culture is closely related to society or environment and is considered as a central theme in her theory. CONCEPT OF HEALTH Defined as a ‘state of well-being that is culturally defined, valued and practiced, and which reflects the ability of individuals (or groups) to perform their daily role activities in culturally expressed, beneficial and patterned lifeways’. CONCEPT OF PERSON Humans are believed to be caring and to be capable of being concerned about the needs, well-being and survival of others.
Human care is universal, that is, seen in all cultures.
Humans are universally caring beings who survive in a diversity of cultures through their ability to provide the universality of care in a variety of ways according to differing cultures, needs and settings. DEFINITION OF
TRANSCULTURAL NURSING A substantive area of study and practice focused on comparative cultural care (caring) values, beliefs and practices of individuals or groups of similar or different cultures with the goal of providing culture-specific and universal nursing care practices in promoting health or well-being or to help people to face unfavorable human conditions, illness or death in culturally meaningful ways. She was born in Nebraska on July 13, 1925 and passed away in August of 2012.
She received her Basic Nursing Education from St. Anthony’s School of Nursing in 1948
and her Bachelor of Science from Mount St. Scholastica College in 1950.
Followed by her Master of Science in Psychiatric-Mental Health Nursing from The Catholic University of America in 1954 and her Ph.D. in Cultural and Social Anthropology from the University of Washington in 1965 MADELEINE LEININGER, PhD, LHD, DS, CTN, RN, FAAN, FRCNA CASE STUDY
Divine spiritual master, help us to make transcultural nursing care meaningful and relevant to those served worldwide. Help nurses to facilitate transcultural understanding, peace, healing, and love among people of diverse and similar cultures in the world. Where there is hatred, fear, prejudice, racism, or violence, help nurses to lessen or remove these barriers through the use of transcultural caring knowledge and skills. In all of our endeavors, let nurses be guided by knowledge reflecting transcultural sensitivities, compassion, understanding, and other differential caring skills to promote holistic healing of cultural wounds, pain, or human suffering. We are, indeed, grateful that you fashioned the universe with diversities so that we could come to your creative design in nature, and in different environmental contexts. For these gifts we are most grateful, but we need your continued help so that the full meaning, goals, and practices of transcultural nursing will be realized for your glory and for the benefit of all beings worldwide. Transcultural Nurses' Prayerby Dr. Madeleine Leininger What could the nurse have done different to provide cultural competent care to her patient?
Madeleine identified a lack of cultural and care of knowledge as the missing component to a nurse's understanding of the many variations required in patient care to support compliance, healing, and wellness. Nurses who understand and
value the practice of culturally
competent. care are able to
effect positive changes in
healthcare practices for clients of
designated cultures. Sharing a
cultural identity requires a
Knowledge of transcultural
nursing concepts and principles,
with an awareness of current
research findings. Culturally competent nursing
care can only occur when client
beliefs and values are
thoughtfully and skillfully
incorporated into nursing care
plans. Caring is the core of nursing.
Culturally competent nursing
guides the nurse to provide
optimal wholistic, culturally
based care. These practices also help the client to care for himself and others within a familiar, supportive, and
meaningful cultural context. Continual improvement and expansion of modern technologies and other nursing and general science knowledge are integrated into practice if they are appropriate. Today nurses are faced daily with unprecedented cultural diversity because of the increasing number of immigrants and refugees. Commitment to learning and
practicing culturally competent
care offers great satisfaction and
many other rewards to those who
can provide wholistic supportive
care to all patients. Referneces Conclusion Leininger, M. M., & McFarland, M. R. (2006). Culture care diversity and universality; a worldwide nursing theory. (2nd ed.). Sudbury, MA: Jones and Barlett Publishers, Inc.

Parker, M. E., & Smith, M. C. (2010). Nursing theories and nursing practices. (3rd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: F. A. Davis Company.
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