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Theoretical framework

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alan baldu

on 24 July 2015

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Transcript of Theoretical framework

Theoretical framework:

Teaching English as a Foreign Language

“education dealing with teaching, linguistics dealing with language, sociology dealing with social environment of the learner, and psychology dealing with the process of learning” Farhady (1995).
Meaningful learning:

“In meaningful learning the recognition of how the new information integrates with prior knowledge and makes sense provides much more rewarding extrinsic motivation”(Novak, 2011)
Students personal interests and motivation:

According to Crookes and Schmidt (1991), motivation is perceived to be composed of three elements. These include effort, desire and affect.

Intrinsic / Extrinsic Motivation.

The effects of English course book topics in the reading skill of 8th grade students.
2-Unit design
3-Lesson plan
Materials and resources
Teaching reading in Chilean 8th grade students is usually addressed with the English course book, in order to provide students efficient reading material, this research focused on course book topics and how they could affect students reading skills and how applying their personal interests as basis for reading material would affect the development of this skill.
The approach we applied in this research was a mixture between qualitative and quantitative lenses.

Course program

Students opinion about course book topics

Students personal interests

Teaching materials for didactic implementation

Lesson plan
English course books

Traditional and contemporary research has provided evidence on the multiple benefits of reading for students...

The multiple benefits of reading for students are basically learning new words, developing their syntactic knowledge, cultural background enhancement (Tze-Ming Chou, 2010)

Mental stimulation, Vocabulary Acquisition, Memory Improvement and Concentration

Data analysis

The hypothesis has been partially proven, it is a fact that meaningful topics enhanced the reading skill of eight grade students but only considering a small sample.

Limitations such as the lack of time and resources hindered our research. Either key theories as The Learning Styles from Gardner and Bloom's taxonomy were not included in our theoretical framework.

However; considering students personal interests should definitely be taken into account when teaching reading, because the fact that the didactic proposal was implemented in only one class showed development of students' reading skill.

We believe that this research could be used by schools in developing pedagogical unit related to English, and as well this study might be an insight for further research in the field of how meaningful topics could boost other skills and the development of new books which consider those topics.

Through this research we hope students motivation regarding to English would boost, by implementing a lesson plan that involves them, they can search for English knowledge
outside the classroom.

Question 6: Do you think English course book is a boring
tool to work with?

Didactic proposal design
and implementation

Students Personal Interests
Course book unit: course book material was designed to implement the lesson plan.

Power Point: the activities were exposed using power point presentation.

Videos: Youtube video “ Canción Mapuche "Millaray“

Worksheets: were designed to improve their reading skill and working on reading comprehension.

Rubrics: in order to evaluate the end of the reading comprehension learning process throughout the Unit.
Question 3 : If you could name five of your main personal interests what would they be from major to minor importance?

Question 7: What is your opinion about the course book units you use in English lessons?

June 15th at Doctora Eloísa Díaz Insunza school
Universal element of ELT

Selection criteria:
- Level of difficulty. Harmer (2007)
"- Layout and graphics
-Learner needs and learning objectives
- target age range
- Culture
- Conceptual and schematic development
- Expectations"
(Sheldon as cited in Tomlinson, 2003, P.43)

This research was divided in three stages:

A qualitative instrument: A pilot questionnaire.

The finished questionnaire.

Data analysis and didactic proposal design.

Principal and UTP
Guide teachers
8th grade students
Quantitative results:
Relating English course book topics and the personal interests of 8th grade students might enhance their reading skill development.

-Research questions:
-Are course book topics meaningful for students, depending on their degree of connection with their personal interests?
-Could students´ interests be important motivational factors that should be considered when teaching reading?

Consequently;he designed and applied activity from the unit proposal tested in a real class context showed being not quantitatively effective to work on students reading comprehension, in spite of the fact that it was efficient in terms of involving and promoting the reading skill practice of the sample students.

25% implementation
Pilot questionnaire
Doctora Eloísa Díaz Insunza
Escuela básica y lenguaje San Andrés

Meaningful Learning

Students' personal interests and motivation


English Course book
The most valuable units according to student opinions
Figure 1a
Figure 1b
Qualitative results.
The sample students approached their reading tasks more enthusiastically than usual, meaningfully improving their attitude towards English learning through reading activities in which one of their favorite topics was an implicit element.
1.- Teacher collaboration
2.- School board permission
Informed consent
3.- Pilot questionnaire
May 26th
4.- Final questionnaire
June 3rd
June 8th
Question 7: What topics would you like to read about?
Figure 5a
Figure 5b


Farhady, H. (1995).Areas of research in TEFL/TESL. University for Teacher Education. Journal of the faculty of foreign languages . Tehran. Tehran university press.

Novak, J. (2011).A theory of education: Meaningful learning underlies the constructive integration of thinking, feeling and acting leading to empowerment for commitment and responsibility. Meaningful Learning Review – V1(2), pp. 1-14 . Retrieved from http://www.if.ufrgs.br/asr/artigos/Artigo_ID7/v1_n2_a2011.pdf

Tze-Ming Chou,P. (2010).Advantages and Disadvantages of ESL Course Books. The Internet TESL Journal, Vol. XVI, No. 11,p.2.Retrieved from http://iteslj.org

Harmer,J.(2007) .How to teach English.Pearson education limited.Edinburgh gate.

Tomlinson, B. (2003).Developing Materials for Language Teaching. New York. Retrieved from https://books.google.es/books?hl=es&lr=&id=qNlzFdoD380C&oi=fnd&pg=PR8&dq=TOMLINSON+MATERIAL+DEVELOPMENT&ots=8KkciZZULX&sig=eeTYtbHCVKfu6TzAzEyJmALgeOA#v=onepage&q=TOMLINSON%20MATERIAL%20DEVELOPMENT&f=false
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