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Gabriela Gonzalez

on 6 November 2014

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Transcript of Iran

Government Structure
Supreme Leader
Assembly of Experts
Council of Guardians
Expediency Council
National Security & Intelligence
Based on age:
0-14 years: 23.7%
15-24 years: 18.7%
25-54 years: 46.1%
55-64 years: 6.3%
65 years+: 5.1%
Spoken Languages
Persian (official) 53%
Azeri Turkic and Turkic dialects 18%
Kurdish 10%
Gilaki and Mazandarani 7%
Luri 6%
Balochi 2%
Arabic 2%
other 2%
Current Leaders
Supreme Leader:
Ayatollah Ali Khamenei

Hassan Rouhani
Linguistic Map
The Country
Urban Population:
Supreme Leader since 1989
President since 2013
$987.1 Billion (2013 est.)
$1.002 Trillion (2012 est.)
$1.021 Trillion (2011 est.)
GDP Purchasing Power Parity
GDP Per Capita
$12800 (2013 est.)
$13200 (2012 est.)
$13600 (2011 est.)
(gross national product)
caustic soda
cement & other construction materials
food processing
ferrous & non-ferrous metal fabrication
$61.22 Billion (2013 est.)
$67.04 Billion (2012 est.)
$64.42 Billion (2013 est.)
$70.03 Billion (2012 est.)
Chemical & Petrochemical Products
Fruits & Nuts
Industrial Supplies
Capital Goods
Foodstuffs & Other Consumer Goods
Technical Services
By sector of origin
10.6 %
(2013 est.)
1935 - 1980
1980 - 1997
2009 - 2013
2001 - 2007
9th Century - 1826
550 BC - 661 AD
1935 - 1980
1980 - 1997
2002 - 2007
2009 - 2013
550 BC-661 AD
9th Century - 1926
Azadi ("Freedom") Tower built in 1971
330 BC
661 AD
492 BC
550 BC
330 BC: Alexander the Great?
Persians hate Alexander the Great; he destroyed Persepolis after a drunk night

Is was blamed for the destruction of religious sites, such as the Zoroastrian temples

312-140: The Seleucid Empire
Founded by a general of Alexander, Seleucus I Nicator, after Alexander the Great's death

Known as the Hellenistic Empire as well
140BC - 224AD: Parthian Empire
Combined with Hyrcania (present Gorgān, Iran) during Alexander the Great's time; Remained together throughout the Seleucid kingdom

First ruler and founder is said to have been Arsaces I
224-651 AD: Sassanian Dynasty
Under Ardashīr I 's leadership the Sāsānians overthrew the Parthians

Arab invasion brings end of Sassanid dynasty & start of Islamic rule
550 BC: The Persian Empire
1st Persian Empire was ruled by the Achaemenid dynasty

Was the 1st & largest empire the world had ever seen
492-449 BC: The Greco-Persian Wars
A series of wars fought between Greece and Persia

Greeks managed to defend themselves

Persian attempts to conquer Greece failed
Leonidas at Thermopylae
9th Century - 1258
9th century - Modern Persian language, Farsi, created using Arabic script

1258 - Mongol forces of Genghis Khan invade Persia; ruled by descendants of Genghis' grandson Hulegu who put an end to the Abbāsid caliphate
1501 - 1639
1501 - Shah Ismail I becomes 1st ruler of Islamic Safavid dynasty; Shia Islam made state religion

1571-1629 - 1st diplomatic ties with western Europe begin

1639 - Treaty of Qasr-e Shirin, or Treaty of Zuhab, ends about 150 yrs. of war vs. the Ottoman Empire
1736 - 1794
1736 - Nadir Shah dethrones last Safavid ruler & establishes the Afsharid dynasty

1751 - Karim Khan, from the Zand dynasty, shortly restores stability

1794 - Mohammad Khan Qajar dispatches last Zand shah and creates the Qajar dynasty
9th Century - 1258
1501 - 1639
1736 - 1794
1828 - 1926
1828 - Iran gives up control of Caucasus to Russia

1914-1918 - Iran declares neutrality in WWI

1921-1926 - Military commander Reza Khan gains power, becomes prime minister is made ruler & overthrows Ahmad Shah Qajar; Reza Khan made Reza Shah Pahlavi; his eldest son, is made Crown Prince.
1828 - 1926
1935 - 1953
1979 - 1980
1935 - 1953
1935 - Iran is adopted as the official name

1941 - Mohammad Reza Pahlavi replaces Shah

1950 - Ali Razmara becomes prime minister; he's killed less than 9 months later; Mohammad Mossadeq succeeds him

1951 - Power struggle between the Shah and Mossadeq ensues; the Shah flees the country

1953 - Mossadeq is overthrown by British and American intelligence services; General Fazlollah Zahedi is made prime minister; the Shah returns
1979 - 1980
1979 - Shah & family are forced into exile

1979 - Islamic fundamentalist, Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, returns after 14 yrs. of exile

1979 - Declaration of the Islamic Republic of Iran

1979 - 52 Americans taken hostage by Islamic militants; they demand deportation of the Shah who was getting medical treatment in the US

1980 - Abolhasan Bani-Sadr elected as 1st President of Islamic Republic

1980 - Exiled Shah dies of cancer in Egypt
1980 - 1988
1989 - 1990
1995 - 1998
1980 - 1988
1980 - Iran-Iraq war begins

1985 - Iran-Contra Affair in which the US tried to win release of hostages in Lebanon by offering secret arms deals

1988 - Iran accepts ceasefire agreement with Iraq after negotiations in Geneva under patronage of the UN
1989 - 1990
1989 - Ayatollah Khomeini dies; President Khamenei made new supreme leader

1989 - Ali Akbar Hashemi-Rafsanjani sworn in as new president

1990 - Iran remains neutral following Iraq's invasion of Kuwait; Iran & Iraq continue diplomatic ties shortly afterward
1995 - 1997
1995 - US enforces oil & trade sanctions over Iran's supposed sponsorship of "terrorism"; Iran denies everything

1997 - Mohammad Khatami wins the presidential election (70% of the vote)
2002 - 2003
2006 - 2007
2002 - 2003
2002 - George Bush speech causes outrage & is condemned in Iran; Russian technicians begin construction of Iran's first nuclear reactor at Bushehr

2003 - Shirin Ebadi wins Iran's first Nobel Peace Prize
2006 - 2007
2006 - UN Security Council votes to impose restrictions on Iran's trade in nuclear materials & technology; Iran vows to speed up uranium enrichment work

2007 - President Ahmadinejad says Iran can produce nuclear fuel at an industrial scale; IAEA says Iran could develop a nuclear weapon in 3-8 yrs. if it so chooses
2012 - 2013
2009 - Mahmoud Ahmadinejad wins June presidential election; rival candidates challenge the result protests begin; at least 30 people are killed & 1,000+ arrested

2009 - Cleric Grand Ayatollah Hoseyn Ali Montazeri dies; clashes between opposition supporters and security forces worsen; at least 8 people die
2012- 2013
2012 - Iran's currency falls to a new record low compared to the US dollar; it lost about 80% of its value since 2011 due to of international sanctions

2013 - Cleric Hassan Rouhani wins presidential election with just over 50% of the vote
Religion Today
Persian food is mostly a blend of both Greek and Indian cuisine
Most food is made with herbs, vegetables and rice along with meat, lamb, chicken or fish
Pork consumption is prohibited due to religious Islamic customs in Iran
Most popular form of entertainment is cinema
Was originally banned but directors were given financial support if they agreed to spread Islamic values; the films were unpopular
Films dealing with the Iran-Iraq War or that reflected Islamic values became popular
Art & Architecture
Iranian Culture
Mohammad Reza Pahlavi
Ayatollah Khomeini
Mohammad Khatami
Shirin Ebadi
Ayatollah Hoseyn Ali Montazeri
Hassan Rouhani
Main Dishes
Apple Cake
Saffron Ice Cream
Black Eyed Peas & Olive Salad
Watercress Salad
Artichoke & Yogurt
Basmati Rice
Chelo kabab (Iranian national dish)
Famous Musicians
Football (Soccer) is the most popular game in Iran
Iran won the Asian championships in 1968, 1974, and 1976 and made its World Cup debut in 1978
Iran’s film industry is one of the best
Festivals of Iranian films are held annually worldwide
Directors Bahram Bayzaʾi, Abbas Kiarostami, Mohsen Makhmalbaf, & Dariyush Mehrjuʾi won several awards at international festivals
Female film directors such as Rakhshan Bani Eʿtemad (Blue Scarf, 1995) and Tahmineh Milani (Two Women, 1999) have emerged
the lives of children
Bashu the Stranger, 1989; The White Balloon, 1995; Children of Heaven, 1997
the concerns and issues of teenagers
The Need, 1991; Sweet Agony, 1999
the beauty of nature
Gabbeh, 1996
social and psychological abuse in marriage, divorce, and polygyny
Leila, 1996; Two Women; Red, 1999
Films deal with:
Traditional Sports
Traditional sports of the country include:
Horse racing
Ritualistic bodybuilding
Iranian athletes first participated in the Olympic Games in 1948

Iran first appeared in the Winter Games in 1956

Most of Iran’s Olympic medals have come in weightlifting, martial arts, and wrestling events.
Sports Achievements
Iran's art & architecture is that of ancient civilizations
Iranian sculptures and pottery are mostly from ancient Persian dynasties.
Winged Lion in Darius I's palace
Achaemenian Drinking Cup
Iran's architecture
The Arabesque dome of the Māder-e Shah madrasah, Eṣfahān, Iran.
Masjed-e Emām (“Imam Mosque”), Eṣfahān, Iran
Bridge built by Allāhverdi Khan over the Zāyandeh River, Eṣfahān, Iran.
Interior of the Masjed-e Emām (“Imam Mosque”), Eṣfahān, Iran.
Life expectancy at birth:
total population: 70.89 years
male: 69.32 years
female: 72.53 years (2014 est.)
Education expenditures:
3.7% of GDP (2012)

total population: 85%
male: 89.3%
female: 80.7% (2008 est.)

School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education):
total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 15 years (2012)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24:
total: 23%
male: 20.2%
female: 33.9% (2008)
Urban Life
Life in Iran
Death rate:
5.94 deaths/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Birth rate:
18.23 births/1,000 population (2014 est.)
Death & Birth Rates
Maternal mortality rate:
21 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)

Infant mortality rate:
total: 39 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 39.53 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 38.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2014 est.)
Maternal & Infant Mortality Rates
Health expenditures:
6% of GDP (2011)

Physicians density:
0.89 physicians/1,000 population (2005)

Hospital bed density:
1.7 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate:
19.4% (2008)

Children under the age of 5 years underweight:
4.6% (2004)
Telephones - main lines in use:
28.76 million (2012)

Telephones - mobile cellular:
58.16 million (2012)

Internet hosts:
197,804 (2012)

Internet users:
8.214 million (2009)
319 (2013)
total: 8,442 km
total: 198,866 km
Ports and terminals:
major seaport(s):
Bandar-e Asaluyeh, Bandar Abbas
river port(s):
Bandar Emam Khomeyni (Shatt al-Arab)
container port(s) (TEUs):
Bandar Abbas (2,752,460)
urban population:
69.1% of total population (2011)

During Safavid era, weaving reached the peak of beauty and elegance
Many people & artists preferred to decorate their floors; Various colorful woven rugs adorned the floors of Iranian houses
Tapestries were used to create privacy or divide the interior space of a house
Materials used are:
linen, wool, silk and artificial fibers
ornamental objects such as wooden or metal beads, are also included
Cloth being woven by Qashqāʾī women in the area of Shīrāz, Iran.
Detail of a Persian silk hunting carpet from Kāshān, Iran, 16th century.
Nadir Shah
Karim Khan
Mohammad Khan Qajar
Afary, Janet. "Iran." Encyclopedia Britannica Online. Encyclopedia Britannica, n.d. Web. 11 Oct. 2014. <http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/293359/Iran>.

Central Intelligence Agency. Central Intelligence Agency, 22 June 2014. Web. 11 Oct. 2014. <https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/geos/ir.html>.

"Encyclopædia Iranica." RSS. N.p., 6 Dec. 2012. Web. 18 Oct. 2014. <http://www.iranicaonline.org/articles/saedi-gholam-hosayn>.

"Iran: Major Cities." Iran (Major Cities): Provinces & Major Cities. N.p., 17 Oct. 2014. Web. 22 Oct. 2014. < http://www.citypopulation.de/Iran-MajorCities.html>.

"Iran Profile." BBC News. N.p., 10 Sept. 2014. Web. 15 Oct. 2014. < http://www.bbc.com/news/world-middle-east-14542950>.

"Persian Traditional Music." Persian Traditional Music. N.p., 28 Sept. 2010. Web. 26 Oct. 2014. <http://www.iranreview.org/content/Documents/Persian_Traditional_Music.htm>.

"RECIPES." Persian Food Recipes, Persian Food and Persian Recipes. N.p., n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2014. <http://www.aashpazi.com/>.

"The Structure of Power in Iran An Overview of the Iranian Government and Political System." PBS. PBS, n.d. Web. 19 Oct. 2014. < http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/tehran/inside/govt.html>.
Black tea
Havij bastani
Islam - 99.4%
Shia ( 90- 95%)
Sunni (5-10%)
Islam is the second largest religion in the world and the official religion of Iran
Muslims believe there is only one God; Allah
Beliefs are based upon the holy books the Qur'an and the Sunnah
Five pillars of Islam consist of
declaration of faith
daily prayers, charity, fasting
, and
Mecca pilgrimage
Although Muslims share most basic religious doctrines, the differences between Shiites and Sunnis ultimately came to be as a result of disputes over who would succeed the prophet Muhammad. Over the years, the divide has seeped into politics and lead to religious intolerance, and sectarian violence.
Believe Abu Bakr should have been Muhammad's successor
Are often referred to as the more Orthodox branch of Islam
They claim to follow the traditions of the Prophet Muhammad over interpretations of the Qur'an
Muslims who believe Muhammad intended for them to follow Ali after his death
Unlike the Sunnis, they include sayings of Shiite imams who they believe to have been divinely inspired
Shiite interpretation of the Holy books allows for more human reasoning
Other Religions (0.3%)
0.4% of the participating population identified their religious beliefs as unspecified
Because of Islamic restrictions, women are banned from wearing even remotely revealing clothing in public
and it is mandatory to wear a
shawl or scarf in public.
Lack of decorative fashion has made primarily young women turn to western styles for fashion attire.
Climate, Flora & Fauna
Warm Arabian winds bring heavy moisture from the Persian Gulf

Precipitation varies; less than 2 inches in the southeast to about 78 inches in the Caspian region

Winter is normally the rainy season for the country
About 1/10 of Iran is forested, mostly in the Caspian region
The Zagros Mountains are covered by oak forests, elm, maple, hackberry, walnut, pear, and pistachio trees.
Desert sand dunes hold water & support thickets of brush
Oases support vines and tamarisk, poplar, date palm, myrtle, oleander, acacia, willow, elm, plum, and mulberry trees
Swamp areas have reeds and grass

Wildlife : leopards, bears, hyenas, wild boars, ibex, gazelles, and mouflons, jackals, rabbits, cheetahs, pheasants, seagulls, ducks, and geese, toads, frogs, tortoises, lizards, salamanders, boas, racers, rat snakes, cat snakes , and vipers

Wildlife sanctuaries : Bakhtegān Wildlife Refuge, Tūrān Protected Area, and Golestān National Park

Hunting swans, pheasants, deer, tigers, among many other animals & birds is prohibited
Ethnic Groups
Persian 61%
Azeri 16%
Kurd 10%
Lur 6%
Baloch 2%
Arab 2%
Turkmen and Turkic tribes 2%
other 1%
An ancient monotheistic religion dating back to 600 BCE that was once Persia's official religion during that same time period. Founded by philosopher Zoroaster, who taught of Ahura Mazda, the only God he believed to be creator of all.

They worship in a Fire Temple but are not fire-worshipers.
Approximately 190,00 followers worldwide
Pray several times on a daily basis
The beliefs valued by the Zoroastrian community can be summarized as "good thoughts, good words, good deeds".
Beliefs About God

Zoroastrians believe only in the god Ahura Mazda, who communicated his teachings through the prophet Zoroaster. Zoroastrians believe that Ahura is all-knowing, all-powerful and omnipresent. He is their creator of life and source of all happiness and success.
One of the main beliefs of Zoroastrianism is that everything created by God is pure and shall be loved. Along with Ahura Mazda, it is believed that there also exists six
Amesha Spentas
or Holy Immortals. These holy beings are divine attributes of God but are not Him, as there is only one.
The six Amesha Spentas are believed to link man to God through the practice of the divine attributes.
The Six Amesha Spentas
Vohu Manah
- Good mind and purpose
Asha Vahishta
- Truth and righteousness
Spenta Ameraiti
- Holy devotion, peace, and loving kindness
- Health and wholeness
Khashathra Vairya
- justice and power
- Long life and immortality
The Four Holy Cities
The Torah
Reza Khan
Ancient Persian Music
A bowed spike fiddle
Is tuned in the same manner as a violin: G, D, A, E.
The kamancheh has been painted in Persian antique paintings

Tar is a plucked stringed instrument (a long-necked lute) that is played in Iran. It has 2 forms now, the Persian is named Tar-e-Shiraaz or Irani.

The most popular percussion instrument in Persian music today

Barbat (UD)
The barbat known as the ud in Iran, is a short-necked fretless lute with five double-courses of strings that is traditionally played with an eagle's quill
Ostad Abdollah Davami
Nasrollah Nassehpoor
Ostad Ali Akbar Shahnazi
Ostad Hosain Tehrani
Music is an expression of the joys, loves, sorrows, efforts, struggles, victories & defeats of the Iranian people.
Communication & Transportation

Type :
Unitary Islamic Republic with 1 Legislative House
Monetary Unit:
Full transcript