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## Emily Lei

on 21 April 2017

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Some people prefer live in countryside because of the quiet environment while others argue that living in downtown offers more opportunities for people.To what extent do you agree or disagree?
IELTS WRITING
How to describe trends?
Structure
Introduction
which years, where & what?
Simple present tense
Body Paragraph
Trends, differences, locations, stages
Paragraph arrangements
Step 2
Determine tense
Introduction: always
simple present tense

Body & Conclusion:
simple past tense, simple present tense

or
simple future tense
,

depends on the graph(s)
Step 3
Select main features
The
most obvious
trend you notice at first sight
Word Substitution
Chart / graph / diagram / figure
Show / describe / indicate / demonstrate
Percentage / proportion
Population aged over 65 / elderly people / senior citizens / aging population
Between 1940 and 2040 / from 1940 to 2040 / during the period of 1940 to 2040/in these 2 decades
Three countries / Japan, Sweden and USA
Brief Overview
Main Features
Step 1
Understand graph(s)
title
of the graph(s)
first
Then look at the graph(s)
Step 4
Arrange structure
Introduction & conclusion are already set
Do we need to
combine similar trends
into one paragraph?
Pie Chart
From 1940 to 1990, the proportions of ageing population in the USA and Sweden
were similar
and
followed the same trend
. In 1940, the figures
stood at
9% in the USA and 7% in the Sweden, and grew to 15% and 14%
respectively
in 1980,
before
falling to 14% and 13% each in 1990.
As far as Japan is concerned,

there was a slight/steady decline in the percentage of aging population from 5% in 1940 to
approximately
3% in 1960,
which was followed by
stabilization until 1990.
Trends:

Line Graph
How to describe proportion?
Example 1
How to describe differences?
Japan
USA & Sweden
Korea & Sweden
Example 2
Task 1 (At least 150 words) (20 mins)
Task 2 (At least 250 words) (40 mins)
Notes:
Introduction (rewrite/paraphrase)
Vocabulary & Sentence to describe trends
Connection between sentences
Select the main feature
Combine similar trends
Types of Essays
Line Chart
Pie Chart
Bar Chart
Table
Map & Diagram
Flow Chart
opinion
discussion
situation (cause &effects/problem &solution)

Write the Introduction
}
90%
Write the Introduction

rise, increase, climb, grow (growth)
decrease, drop, fall, decline
level off, stabilize (stabilization)
fluctuate (fluctuation)
sharp, marked, significant, dramatic (dramatically)
The percentage of elderly people increased sharply from 5% in 1990 to 21% in 2000.
The period between 1990 and 2000
witnessed / saw /experienced
a sharp increase in the percentage of the elderly people from 5% to 21%.
There was a sharp increase in the percentage of the elderly people from 5% in 1990 to 21% in 2000.
After that, the proportion
increased
and
is expected to rise
sharply to 25% in 2030,
with
a less drastic climb to 27% in 2040.

After
leve
l
ling off
, the percentage of elderly people in the USA
is predicted to climb
to about 23% in 2040. However, in Sweden,
in spite of
some fluctuation, there will be increasingly more people aged 65 and over until 2040.
Obviously
, the percentage of elderly people in all three countries is expected to increase to almost 25% by the year 2040.
60% of money is spent on rent.
There is 60% of money spent on rent.
The percentage of money spent on rent is about 60%.
Money spent on rent
accounts
for 60% of all.
Rank each slice
Describe each slice
Globally, 65% of degradation is caused by too much animal grazing and tree clearance, constituting 35% and 30%,
respectively
.
A further 28% of global degradation is due to over-cultivation of crops. Other causes account for only 7%
collectively
.
Step 1:
Understand the graph
Step 2:
Decide the tense
Simple present tense
Step 3:
Select the main feature
Step 4:
Arrange the paragraphs
Introduction
Korea & Sweden
United Kingdom
Overview
Comparative degree & Superlative degree
A is more than B.
Andy's eyes are bigger than Ben's.
Andy's eyes are bigger than those of Ben.
Times
A is twice as many/much/large/high as B.
A is twice more than B.
The number of females was twice as large as that of males in 1912.
The number of females was twice more than that of males in 1912.
Figure enumeration
According to the charts, three treating methods are
generally applied in both
Korea and Sweden.
Specifically
, nearly 70% of dangerous waste is recycled in Republic of Korea,
while
landfill is the most widely adopted treatment for hazardous trash in Sweden
(55%)
.
The percentage of waste products which are incinerated in Sweden is about
twice as large as
that in Korea (20% and 9%
respectively
).
Obviously
, both United Kingdom and Sweden are dependent on landfill in the disposal of hazardous products,
whereas
the proportion of waste recycling is the highest in the Republic of Korea.
Overview
Write the Introduction
Trends
Particular Point：
The numbers of students aged between 40-49 who study for career and interest are the same.
Write the Introduction
The highest level of employer support for those students who mainly study for career purposes. When people get older, interest is the most important motivation to accept education.
Bar Charts

Why are bar charts so popular?
Thus we can see that more men than women held qualifications at the lower and higher levels of education, while more women reached undergraduate diploma level than men.
The gender difference was smallest at the level of Bachelor’s degrees.
According the to chart, during the period from 1990 to 1995, the average prices of houses in three cities
decreased significantly

by
5 percent in New York (USA) and about 7.5 percent in both Tokyo (Japan) and London (UK), while the average house prices
increased slightly
in two cities, Madrid (Spain) and Frankfurt (Germany),
by
about 1.5 percent and 2 percent
respectively
.
Write the Introduction
Step 1: Understand the graph
Step 2: Determine the tense
Step 3: Select the main feature
Step 4: Arrange paragraphs
With the growth in age, there is a gradual decline in the percentage of students who study for career,
while
the proportion of those who study for interest rises steadily.
Differences
Starting point:
For people under 26 years old, the percentage of students who study for their career is about
8 times as large as
that of those
who study for interest (80% and 10%
respectively
).
Overview
Step 1: Understand the graph
Step 2: Determine the tense
Step 3: Select the main feature
Step 4: Arrange paragraphs
1990-1995
1996-2002
As far as the next period (1996-2002) is concerned, it is clear that the average house prices
declined only in
Tokyo (Japan)
by
5 percent. In contrast, the average house prices increased in the rest of the cities, and the prices
rose considerably by
5 percent, 4 percent and 2 percent in New York, Madrid and Frankfurt respectively.
Step 1: Understand the graph
Step 2: Determine the tense
Step 3: Select the main feature
Step 4: Arrange paragraphs
The biggest gender differences was at the lowest post-school level, where 90% of those who held a skilled vocational diploma were men,
compared with
only 10% of women.
By contrast, more women held undergraduate diploma (70%) and
marginally
more women reached degree level (55%).
At the higher levels of education, men with postgraduate diplomas clearly outnumbered their
female counterparts
(70% and 30%, respectively), and also
constituted
Flow Chart
Table
Trends
Differences
Introduction
USA & Sweden
Japan
Overview
The graph below shows the proportion of the population aged 65 and over between 1940 and 2040 in three different countries.
The line chart describes the percentage of the elderly people from 1940 to 2040 in Japan, Sweden and USA.
occupy, constitute, take up, make up
30% of people are aged over 65.
There is 30% of people who are senior citizens.
The percentage of ageing population is 30%.
The number of elderly people make up 30% of all population.
The average house price in the United Kingdom dropped dramatically by 20% from 2000 to 2010.
The period between 2000 and 2010 witnessed a significant decline in average house price in the United Kingdom (20%).
There is a sharp decrease of 20% in average house price in the United Kingdom during the period of 2000 to 2010.
Trends
Differences
A combination of trends and differences
The table tells us the number of people who live above the age of 100 in Britain during different periods.
Step 1: Understand the graph
Step 2: Determine the tense
Step 3: Select the main feature
Step 4: Arrange paragraphs
Step 1: Understand the graph
Step 2: Determine the tense
Step 3: Select the main feature
Step 4: Arrange paragraphs
These causes affected different regions differently in the 1990s.
Europe, with the highest overall percentage of land degraded (23%), had as much as 9.8% of degradation due to deforestation and also suffered from over-cultivation (7.7%) and over-grazing (5.5%).
In contrast, Oceania had 13% of degraded farmland and this was mainly caused by over-grazing (11.3%). The impact of deforestation was minimal, with only 1.7% of land affected. North America had a lower proportion of degraded land at only 5%, and the main causes of this was over-cultivation (3.3) and, to a lesser extent, over-grazing (1.5%).
Horizontal Comparison
Vertical Comparison
The table shows the
details regarding
the underground rail systems in six different cities.
London has the oldest underground railway systems among the six cities. It was opened in the year 1863, and it is already 140 years old.
Paris is the second oldest,
in which it
was opened in the year 1900.
The tube in Paris is the second oldest, in which it has served citizens since 1990.
The tube in Paris is the second oldest, in which it was opened in the year 1900.
The tube in Paris is the second oldest, in which it has served citizens since 1990.
This was then followed by the opening of the railway system in Tokyo, Washington DC and Kyoto.
Los Angeles has the newest underground railway systems and
was
only
opened
in the year 2001.
Los Angeles did not construct underground systems until the year 2001
In terms of the size of the railway systems, London, for certain, has the largest underground railway systems. It has 394 kilometers of route in total, which is nearly twice as large as the system in Paris.
Kyoto, in contrast, has the smallest system. It only has 11 kilometers of route, which is
more than 30 times less than
that of London.
Kyoto, in contrast, has the smallest system. The route in this city is 11 kilometers, which is only a thirtieth of that in London.
Interestingly, Tokyo, which only has 155 kilometers of route, serves the greatest number of passengers per year, at 1927 million passengers.
The system in Paris has the second greatest number of passengers, at 1191 millions passengers per year. The smallest underground railway system, Kyoto, serves the smallest number of passengers per year as predicted.

In conclusion, the underground railway systems in different cities vary a lot in the size of the system, the number of passengers served per year and in the age of the system.
Trends
Differences
Total - Overview
These changes to the school buildings, road, path, car parks and sports field aim to house the extra 400 students planned to be attending this school in 2024.
Conclusion
Emily Lei
Writing Assessment Criteria
Coherence and cohesion
Lexical resource
GRA

1/weak argument and irrelevant supporting details
2/conjunction/clause abusing or inappropriately used
3/inappropriate pronoun
4/either to long or too short,or wrongly intended.
1/fail to answer all the question
causes and effects/discuss both then give your opinion
2/get the question wrong
3/magnify or shrink the discussion objects
4/ opinion repetitively stated
5/ several opinions messed up in one paragraph.

common mistakes made by Chinese candidates
Lexical resource
1/ inappropriate substitutes
teenager-children
requirement-demand
2/contextually irrelevant words
Advertising is a good way to propagandize products.
3/words repetition
4/wrong/improper collocation
improve awareness--increase awareness

opinion
To what extend do your agree or disagree?
Do you think a positive or negative development?
Intro: (4sentence)
1/paraphrase the background information
2/state both points of view
4/outline sentence (plan)
Body1:Topic sentence(the argument you agree with) +explanation+your opinion+example
Body2:Topic sentence(the argument you disagree with)+explanation+your opinion(refutation)+example
Conclusion:(2 sentences?
1/summary
2/state which one is better or important(restate your opinion)
discussion
Discuss both sides of this argument and give your own opinion.
The Internet has as many disadvantages as it does advantages. To what extent do you agree or disagree?
problem and solution
What problems might be caused?How could we solve them?
Which factors contribute to this? what measures can we take ?

Intro:
Sentence 1- Paraphrase question
Sentence 2- Outline sentence (say what you will discuss in the rest of the essay)
Body1:problem
Sentence 3- State problem
Sentence 4- Explain what problem is
Sentence 5- What is the result of this problem
Sentence 6- Example
Body2:
Sentence 7- State solution
Sentence 8- Explain how solution will solve problem
Sentence 9- Example
Conclusion:
Sentence 10- Summary of main points in paragraphs 2 and 3
Sentence 11- Prediction or recommendation

HOW TO WRITE INTRODUCTION?
--PLAN FIRST
--TRANSLATE THE PLAN INTO SENTENCES
What is the topic?
What is the question?
step1:rephrase the background information and key topic.
Deciding where to live is one of life's more difficult choice. One may opt for life in the country or the city. In my opinion, life in the city is more advantageous, due to the fact that the city offers better economic and social opportunities.
HOW TO ORGANIZE THE BODY PART
The body of the essay is where you demonstrate your ability to:
--construct an argument or discussion
--use a range of vocabulary related to specific topic
--use a range of grammar for specific topic
T=TOPIC SENTENCE(IDEA)
S=SUPPORT/EXPLAIN
E=EXAMPLE
A=ALTERNATIVE
S=SOLUTION
R=RESULT
One problem in big cities is the lack of green space.

For example
, in the city where I live ,we only have one small park, which is itself surrounding by concrete buildings.
This is an issue because
city citizens need green area in order to relax, and the plants and trees also help to filter the air.
To solve this problem
, city authorities must invest more in building parks and gardens.
As a result
, the people who live in cities suffer from less stress and breathe cleaner and safer air.
One of the most significant benefits of air travel is speed.
Most aircraft nowadays are able to travel faster than any other mode of transport, and they do not have to deal with the same obstacles as on land.

To illustrate
this speed, a journey from London to New York by air takes just 10 hours.
In contrast,
traveling across the Atlantic by sea takes several days.
Evidently,
traveling by plane is far more convenient tan traveling by other means.
HOW TO MAKE A CONCLUSION IN THE END
a quick review of your topic sentence
summarize the key point(Although.....(the point you don't agree with), (the point your agree with).
restate your opinion. (Therefore, (state about what you think, how much you agree, what solutions are best, or who you agree with.) )
the 2-sentence introduction strategy
to be clear and effective
step1/ The underlying issue/problem/worry
step2/ A question you will answer by the end of your essay

Recently
These days
many people
many countries
have been
are becoming
worried
concerned
The question is, is" " really a problem?
Most societies have homeless people. Some people think the best way to help them is to give them money. To what extend do you agree?
Recently, many countries have become worried about the number of homeless people. The question is , is giving them more money a good idea?
As an increasing large number of people are overweight, some people believe that university should make sport compulsory , what is your opinion on this?
In conclusion, although making university students do sport would be beneficial to students, it may also harm some students. Therefor, I believe it should not be mandatory.
Technology
Intro: (4sentence)
1/paraphrase the background information
2/state both points of view
4/outline sentence (plan)
Body1:Topic sentence(the argument you agree with) +explanation+your opinion+example
Body2:Topic sentence(the argument you disagree with)+explanation+your opinion(refutation)+example
Conclusion:(2 sentences?
1/summary
2/state which one is better or important(restate your opinion)
Intro: (4sentence)
1/paraphrase the background information
2/state both points of view
4/outline sentence (plan)
Body1:Topic sentence(the argument you agree with) +explanation+your opinion+example
Body2:Topic sentence(the argument you disagree with)+explanation+your opinion(refutation)+example
Conclusion:(2 sentences?
1/summary
2/state which one is better or important(restate your opinion)
question type
Question 1
In some countries young people are encouraged to work or travel for a year between finishing high school and starting university studies.
Discuss the advantages and disadvantages for young people who decided to do this.
Question 2
Some experts believe that it is better for children to begin learning a foreign language at primary schools rather than secondary school.
Question 3
Computers are becoming an essential part of school lessons.

Opinion
agree or disagree
to what extent do you agree or disagree with this statement
happiness
words and collocations
using pronoun referencing
language development
words and collocations
1/identify N,V,A

practice P54 Q1-2
be aware of prefix and suffix
common prefix
un-unhappy,uncommon,unstable,unpleasant
dis-dissatisfied,disapprove,
de-descend,deteriorate,degenerate
en-enrich,enable,
common suffix
-sion:possession ,discussion
-y:wealthy,jealousy
-able:inheritable,audible,
http://www.myenglishteacher.eu/blog/prefixes-suffixes-list/
Tips for writing a strong argument
don not agree-disagree
not happy-unhappy
not satisfied with-unsatisfied with
shorten your sentence by using proper word
capitalists can make more and more money easily-capitalists can enrich themselves effortlessly
poor classroom facilities make students not be able to hear the teacher clearly-poor classroom facilities make the teacher relatively inaudible.
LEXICO RESOURCE
GRAMMAR ACCURACY
pronoun
They should pay more attention to education.Parents can spend more time playing with children,and they will fell happier and can lead a fulfilling life. A child who has a happy home life can improve his behavior at school.
Before replacing with a pronoun ,you have to look back to the noun.Is it a singular form or plural form?Is it a countable noun or uncountable noun? Are there many items or only one? Is it a sentence(idea) or are there some sentences and ideas?

Money
is necessary to live. _____ pays for accommodation,food and clothing.
Soil,water,air and sunlight
are basic elements in environment._____are also primary conditions for plants to grow.
The number of wealthy people is increasing in some parts of the world
._____is good for the economy.
Water is poisoned ,air is polluted and vegetation is declining severely
._____ factors led to a series of heath problems of residents.
it this they these
practice :P55 Q4-5
skills development
sub-skill 1:identify ideas
whose ideas are the following ideas?(P56 Q1)

phrases to show others' opinion
In my view/opinion,
From my、perspective/ point of view,
I think /believe that+sentence
What I personally believe /insist is that+sentence
According to +group of people
Some people think/believe/suggest/state/claim/say that +sentence
It+ is+ believed/said/suggested/stated that+sentence.
A statement/belief/suggestion/saying/claim accepted by many is that+sentence
sub-skill 2:use the phrases to state and contrast other people's opinion.
having more money
makes people happier
VS
happiness cannot be defined by people's possessions.
makes life less stressful so people may feel happier
happiness can be found in other aspects of life such as close friends and family members.
sub-skill 1+sub-skill2+sub-skill3=introduction for opinion essay
practice:P57 Q2 and 3
skills development
Having more money means a happier life.Do you agree or disagree with this statement?
Paragraph 1- Introduction
Sentence 1- Paraphrase Question
Sentence 2- Thesis Statement
Sentence 3- Outline Statement
Paragraph 2- Supporting Paragraph 1
Sentence 1- Topic Sentence
Sentence 2- Explain Topic Sentence
Sentence 3- Example
Sentence 4- Concession Sentence
Paragraph 3- Supporting Paragraph 2
Sentence 1- Topic Sentence
Sentence 2- Explain Topic Sentence
Sentence 3- Example
Sentence 4- Concession Sentence
Paragraph 4- Conclusion
Sentence 1- Summary key points.
Sentence 2- restate your position (Prediction or Recommendation)

practice:P57-58 Q4.5
In some countries an increasing number of people are suffering from health problems as a result of eating too much fast food. It is therefore necessary for governments to impose a higher tax on this kind of food.
To what extent do you agree or disagree?

It is argued that governments should levy a tariff on junk food because the number of health risks associated with consuming this kind of food is on the rise. It is agreed that a higher rate of tax should bepaid by fast food companies. Firstly, this essay will discuss the fact that alcohol and tobacco companies already pay higher taxes and secondly, discuss how higher taxes would raise prices and lower consumption, followed by a reasoned conclusi

It is argued that governments should levy a tariff on junk food because the number of health risks associated with consuming this kind of food is on the rise. It is agreed that a higher rate of tax should be paid by fast food companies. Firstly, this essay will discuss the fact that alcohol and tobacco companies already pay higher taxes and secondly, discuss how higher taxes would raise prices and lower consumption, followed by a reasoned conclusion.
Higher excise on liqueur and cigarettes has proven to be successful at curbing the harm caused by these substances. This revenue has been used to treat health problems associated with these products, has proven useful in advertising campaigns warning people about the dangers of alcohol and tobacco abuse and tax from fast food could be used in the same way. The United Kingdom is a prime example, where money from smokers is used to treat lung cancer and heart disease. However, some may argue that alcohol and tobacco are addictive substances and fast food should not be treated in the same way.
Increasing taxes would raise prices and lower consumption. Fast food companies would pass on these taxes to consumers in the form of higher prices and this would lead to people not being able to afford junk food. For instance, the cost of organic food has proven prohibitively expensive for most people. Despite this, people in many developed countries, where the problem is most acute, can afford price hikes and will continue to eat high fat meals.
In conclusion, junk food should be taxed at a higher rate because of the good precedent set by alcohol and tobacco and the fact that the increased cost should reduce the amount of fast food people buy. Finally, it is predicted that with the ever increasing health problems associated with obesity, governments are sure to introduce some kind of ‘fat tax’ in the near future.

develop the body
body paragraph 1: supporting idea one
sentence1:topic sentence
sentence3:give example
sentence4 &5:concession sentence &refutation
It does not seem unreasonable to say that money can make life easier because it reduces stress and worry.Families with sufficient money could afford accommodations,cars and education effortlessly thus less life burden and fewer arguments would be caused among family members.To illustrate this, students from wealthy families are more likely to achieve a higher degree in the study because their families can pay for good schools ceaselessly. However, it is sometimes argued that money cannot solve all family problems and love from parents are more crucial than anything else in the world,but what's quite clear to all is that it can be difficult for parents to be positive and loving if they are always worrying about money.
practice:page 57 Q4
，while
.However,
http://ieltsliz.com/opinion-essay-sample-questions/
category
id
ideas
having more money=a happier life
1.fufill dream with money(artists/education)
2.bring more joy to family and friends
3.broden one's horizon
4.ensure a high quality health care and living standard.
1.it does not mean a happier life but could reduce life stress
2.it doesn't mean a happier life but it is pivotal for people to make a difference in lifetime
3.having more money may pose a threat to personal safety.(get kidnapped/criminal/ransom)

personal happiness comes from being successful in life.
1/financial success brings people a large number of possessions to make life happy.
2/successful man with high social statues has a lot of priorities in society , which can make his life less stressful and much easier .
1.a healthy physical condition is the most significant factor for happiness.
2.family and friends are crucial for being happy.
3.having rich life experiences contributes to a happy life.
A successful life is a happy life(successful=happy)
1.things offered by success make people more distant and promote materialistic values and trends.
2.success makes people to pursue for it ceaselessly,thus, leading to committing crimes.(smuggling/corruption/bribe)
session1
session 2
U7
u8
U9
The natural world
natural word vocabulary
the passive
using sequence markers
describing a process
language development
vocabulary
acid rain
volcano
glacier
factory
pollution
practice on page 60 Q123
grammar
passive voice
the agent is unknown
the agent is not important
when we want to focus on the object of the action more than the subject
formula for passive voice:
active: subject +verb+object
passive: object+be+p.p
practice :P61Q4/5
skills development
sub-skills 1:use both active &passive voice (Why) (P62 Q1/2)
sub-skills 2:expand the label into full sentence
how?
change the voice
combine labels
gas pollution rises
The gas pollution is produced by factory and rises to the sky.
clouds store pollution/pollution turns to acid rain
S+V+O
Practice P63 Q3
sub-skills 3：showing the order of stage
sequence adverb:at first,first,firstly,at the beginning,second,secondly,then,next;at last,finally,eventually,in the end...
clause:when ,after
review how to structure other kinds of charts
paragraph1:introduction(what is this flow chart showing?)+overall process+beginning+ending
The flow chart/diagram demonstrates/shows/gives information...(process)how...
paragraph 2:describe the
procedure(first stage)
paragraph 3:describe the second stage
essay organization
sample
IELS B6 T3
do the practice on P65
session 3
IELTS Intermediate Writing
technology
words
connecting and contrasting ideas
describe
language development
brainstorming
phone
computer
play computer games
video call
work
TV
watch TV programmes

electronic devices
make a phone call
send message

+
-
+
-
+
-
...
practice on age 48 Q1/2
to contrast ideas:
However;On the other hand;yet;although
practice on Page 49 Q3/4
skills development
mobile phones are convenient tools.
computers can help us work efficiently.
...
Mobile phones are easily stolen.
The important data on computer can be stolen by hackers
....
prac:P50Q1 &p51Q4
sub-skills 2:main idea &supporting information
trunk (main idea)and roots(supporting):
an example
explanation
reason
pra:P50Q2
skills development
sub-skills 3:organize a paragraph
sentence 1:main idea
sentence 2:expansion(explain the main idea)
sentence 3:supporting idea
sentence 4:reason
(to achieve TR well,you can..)
sentence 5:supporting idea
sentence 6:example
sample paragraph
the advantage of applying multimedia in classroom teaching
The application of multimedia in teaching brings benefits to both students and teachers. Students can get more chances to show their own special abilities and teachers can change the role they play in classroom.Standing on the point of view of students,multimedia teaching provides students with opportunities to represent and express their prior knowledge.For example,some students may be good at doing presentation with power point,which is a direct way to show their advantage of presenting in public.Without multimedia,that cannot be realized.Further more,from teacher's perspective,they can play a different role in classroom and release their burden by changing the teacher-centered way into student-centered mode.
prac:P51 Q5&Q7
idea accumulation
page 52 Q6
students do brainstorm
U10 Multiple Charts
Places to Live
words describing city area
words describing change
the present perfect tense
compare and contrast multiple charts
language development
shopping center
A
B
industrial area
C
residential area
D
E
sports center
entertainment complex
F
to improve
Her teaching
skills has been improved.
to expand
They have expanded
their territory.
to alter
She altered her dressing
exercise 2 P68
GRAMMAR
PRESENT PERFECT
S+have has done+sth
object+have/has been done
exercise 3 P69
compare objects
A is /was (not)as ....as B
A is was ...(er)/more...than B
A is the most...
A is the ...(est)
exercise 4P69
skills development
review all types of graphs
multiple charts
same topic but focus on different aspects
sub-skill 1:identify the information given in each graph

do exercise 1 on P70
sub-skill2: identify main trend and details
B8T1
review compare quantity
main:over all the time
detail:specific time period/comparison
do exercise on page 71
sub-skill 3:select the main feature and describe with details
exercise 3
sub-skill 4:find the relationship between the charts
what are the same things they share? exercise 4 &real test analyze
Does A causes B(B changed because of A?)
A is in the minor scale ,B is in the bigger scale?
Must I write two graphs in one paragraph？
Must I compare these two paragraph?
Describe those graphs respectively
Do not need to compare the two graphs if there is no relevant comparison.
p1
Sentence 1- Paraphrase question sentences.
There will normally be two question sentences and you should combine them into one sentence by using ‘and’ or ‘while’. This will allow you to produce a complex sentence and gain points for grammatical range and accuracy.

The pie graph shows the principal causes why farming land deteriorates while the table gives information about how three regions of the planet were affected by these factors in the 1990s.

Paragraph 2
Sentence 1- Overview of two of the main features from graph number 1.
Sentence 2- Overview of two of the main features from graph number 2.
Sentence 3- Overview of any comparisons if necessary (optional).

We can clearly see from the pie chart that there are
three primary causes of farmland degradation, and over-grazing is the major one. The table shows that Europe had a far higher percentage of unproductive land compared to the other two regions in this time period.

Paragraph 3
Sentence 1- Details of first main feature of graph number 1,
Sentence 2- Details of second main feature of graph number 1.

The pie chart represents four causes, with over-grazing representing the biggest proportion at just over a third. Widespread clearing of trees and the over-use of crops constitute nearly one third and just over a quarter respectively.
Paragraph 4
Sentence 1- Details of first main feature of graph number 2.
Sentence 2- Details of second main feature of graph number 2.
Sentence 3- Details of any comparisons (if any).

The table shows that nearly one quarter of Europe’s entire surface had fallen victim to degeneration. Only a small proportion of North America’s total land became less productive at 5% and Oceania was marginally higher with a value of 13%.

exam skills
exercise analyze
U11 Health

vocabulary
first and second condition
linking words to describe cause and effect
writing a cause and effect essay for task 2
part 1:language development
so/therefore/as a result
because/because of/due to
exercise
stay up
unhealthy diet
fever
doctor
medicine
junk food
cure
illness
cure cancer
treatment
sub-health
Many teenagers neglect exercise .
As a result
,they are getting obese.
Many teenagers neglect exercise ,
so
they are getting obese.
Many teenagers neglect exercise
and therefore
they are getting obese.

obesity
Many people find themselves in sub-health condition,
because
they always stay up.
exercise 3&4 on page 77
words related to health
health
exercise P74 1&2
treatment
cure
pill
medicine
therapy
doctor
medical care
medical personnel
physical disorder
mental disorder

grammar
first condition (real situation)
if clause +main clause
If the pain
gets
worse ,I
will
go to the doctor.
second condition(in unlikely condition)
if +past simple +sb would/could/might+do
If people
ate
less junk food,they
might not be
overweight.
exercise 3&4 on page 75
skills development
identify what is a cause &what is an effect
use indefinite language to describe the effect
exercise on page 76&78
idea accumulation
what are the causes and effect of sub-health?
what are the causes of cosmetic surgery and what are the effects it have for the health and society?
causes
lack of exercise
effects
lower working efficiency
higher traffic accident
tips for exam
how many questions asked?what are the key words and minor keywords?
structure your essay in a clear way.(do not mix the causes and effect in one paragraph.)
elaborate the causes and effect instead of making a list of them.
In many parts of the world today there is a profitable market for products which lighten or whiten people’s skin.

Outline the reasons for using such products and discuss what effects they have in terms of health and society.

paragraph 1:introduction
sentence 1:paraphrase the question
sentence 2:outline sentence
Paragraph 2:causes
sentence1:topic sentence for cause 1
sentence2:explain the cause
sentence3:example
paragraph3:effect
sentence1:topic for the effect 1
sentence2:explain this effect
sentence3:example of the effect
paragraph4:conclusion
sentence 1:summarize cause & effects
sentence2:suggestion

Transport
to do/doing
zero article &plural forms for general nouns
problem &solution essay
checking and revising essay
language development
vocabulary
problem
solution
pollution
traffic jam(congestion)
rush hour
car crash
public transport
limit the number of private cars
grammar
verbs followed by an infinitive with to...
https://learnenglish.britishcouncil.org/en/english-grammar/verbs/verbs-followed-infinitive
except to
intend to
plan to
decide to
promise to
agree to
refuse to
http://learnenglishteens.britishcouncil.org/grammar-vocabulary/grammar-videos/verb-ing-or-verb-infinitive
verbs followed by an infinitive with an ing form
exercise 1&2 on page 80&81
skills development
sub-skill 1:identify the problem and solution(q1&2 on page 82）
words to indicate a problem:cause/because/create/lead to/happen/issue/underlying
words to indicate a solution:take /measures/policy/carry out/should do/by
p1:introduction (background information+outline sentence)
P2:problem1+solution1
P3:problem 2+solution2
p4:conclusion
how to come up with related ideas?(problem&solution)
step 1:analyze the question correctly
key words---micro key words
Global warming is one of the biggest threats humans face in the 21st Century and sea levels are continuing to rise at alarming rates.
What problems are associated with this and what are some possible solutions.

step 2:draw a thinking map.think about as more as you can ,but pick the closest one when you write
rising sea level
problem:flood--homeless--loss of property---disease
build flood barriers:dam/dike
e.g.Holland
the loss of farmland
(shortage of food)
land reclamation
e.g.HK
saltwater intrusion
desalination
step 3:pick no more than 2 problems(elaborate the problems and solutions)
main idea (problem)--explain the main idea---example
The foremost problem caused by sea levels creeping up is the flooding of peoples’ residences.
Millions of people all over the world live in coastal areas and if the sea rises by even a few feet,
they will be inundated with water and lose their property. Shelter is one of the most basic of human
needs and widespread flooding would cause millions of people to become homeless, not to mention
losing all of their possessions. The devastation brought about by this was clear for all to see during the 2011 Tsunami in Japan, in which millions of people were displaced.

practice:Q3 on page 83
essay correction
1/singular/plural
2/tense
3/s,v,o(sentence type)
4/subject verb agreement
5/correct part of speech

page 84 Q4&5
u12
laptop
tablet
TOP 3 indispensable electronic devices/gadgets for me.
smart phone
tablet
computer
digital camera
TV
smart watch
a monitor
health vocabulary
disease/illness:
obesity
melancholia
insomnia
diabetes
physical disorder
mental disorder
hypertension
stressful
severe/serious
mental/physical/psychological
obese
deteriorating
ailing
debilitating

nouns:
diet
obesity
treatment
cure
medical care
health care
therapist
social welfare
stress /pressure
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