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Transcript of Jean Piaget
Death: September 17, 1980 How does a child learn? So, what does this have to do with teaching? Classroom Application Sources: Pushbacks "the century's most creative scientific thinkers" British Psychology Society named him the greatest psychologist most popular in the 20's and 30's and again in the late 50's and 60's Two Truths and a Lie
1) Published more than 80 books
2) Woke up at 4 a.m. everyday
3) First intereseted in zoology That's RIGHT! He published a mere 50 books "I always like to think on a problem before reading about it." "haunted by the idea of discovering a sort of embryology of intelligence" "the mind is thus not a passive mirror but an active artist as it develops increasingly sophisticated versions of reality" 1920 work with Alfred Binet which led to Dr. Piaget seeing a pattern in the wrong answers. The pattern related to a child's age group. blue beret theories based on "knee exploration", intuition and feeling In groups, record the main ideas for your stage.
Be creative, have fun and ask questions! He overlooks the effects of culture
and social context Some stages are not "natural" because they reflection cultural expections. the thinking of a child changes in ways that involve more than the addition of knowledge and skills - it involves finding a "just right" equilibrium for a child constantly strives to make sense of the world and CONSTRUCTS their own understanding 4 factors that interact to influence changes in thinking 1) Biological maturation 2) Activity 3) Social experiences 4) Equilibrium Ensure nourishment and healthy care is given to allow child to undergo biological changes Physical ability to act on the environment and learn from it Learning from others through social transmission Tendencies Organization
Organize thinking into psychological structures (schemes)
System for understanding and interacting with the world
Simple structures combine and coordinate to be more sophisticated and effective EX:
-Infants have not combined looking AND grasping an item
-Sucking through the straw scheme--specific
-Grocery store scheme--general
Assimilation-People use their existing schemes to make sense of events in the world
Try to understand something new by fitting it into what we already know Accommodation-Sometimes causes schemes to change or develop to respond a new situation
We adjust our thinking to fit the new information rather than the opposite Equilibrium-the act of searching for a balance.
This is where changes in thinking takes place because we avoid disequilibrium. EX: a child sees a raccoon and says "kitty"
EX: Add a scheme for recognizing raccoons EX: We see a raccoon and we are able to identify it with scheme.
Or we see a raccoon and add a new scheme to allow us to identify the animal. Group 1
The Sensorimotor Stage
The Preoperational Stage
pg. 34-35 plus table on pg. 36
The Concrete-Operational Stage
pg.35-37 plus table on pg. 38
The Formal Operations Stage
pg. 37-40 Infants may understand that the object is permanent but don't have the memory or motor skills to show that. Sure, children think in this way but perhaps not in four separate stages. Most children can conserve blocks before water Some of the problems were too difficult and the directions were confusing. A 9 year old chess player can think more abstractly than a 20 year old novice player. With more knowledge and experience the correct thinking can occur. "The goal of education is not to increase the amount of knowledge but to create the possibilities for a child to invent and discover, to create (wo)men who are capable of doing new things." The mind is not a passive mirror but an active creator with motives, intentions and feelings. "Mental development is a continuous construction comparable to the erection of a vast building that becomes more solid with each addition." He underestimated their abilites.
Small children can think complexly when a task is explained in the right way. allow the child to use their five senses to explore and discover
see them as scientists
learn through trial and error
allow children to play as a part of developing their thinking
give concrete examples - especially for math concepts
expect high-quality things but give them time to think things through
encourage abstract thoughts and questions
BE A GUIDE!
adjust the sophistication of an activity to their age and development
scaffold activities to help children advance to the next stage
use hypothetical questions and have students explain discoveries
Accommodate and assimilate to ensure our schemes match information from the environment Adler, Jerry, and John Carey. "Piaget: Exploring The Child's World." Newsweek. 29 Sept. 1980. Web. 30 Apr. 2010.
Gardner, Howard. "Jean Piaget: The Psychologist As Renaissance Man." New York Times. 21 Sept. 1980. Web. 30 Apr. 2010.
Hammond, Claudia. "It's Child's Play." The Times (London). 15 Dec. 2003. Web. 1 May 2010.
Hechinger, Fred. "Piaget's Work Remains A Vital THread in the Tapestry of Education." New York Times. 23 Sept. 1980. Web. 30 Apr. 2010.
Woolfolk, Anita. Educational Psychology. Upper Saddle River, N.J.: Merrill, 2010. Print.
Piaget, Jean, and David Elkind. Six Psychological Studies. New York: Vintage, 1968. Print.
Smith, J.Y. "Jean Piaget Dies, Was a Founder Of Modern Child Psychology." Washington Post. 17 Sept. 1980. Web. 1 May 2010.
Whitman, Alden. "Jean Piaget Dies in Geneva at 84." New York Times. 17 Sept. 1980. Web. 30 Apr. 2010.