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Oral Pathology

Preliminary Diagnosis or Oral Lesions
by

Lynn Kettenhofen

on 22 January 2016

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Transcript of Oral Pathology

Oral Pathology
Chapter 1
Preliminary Diagnosis of Oral Pathology

Clinical
Diagnostic and Descriptive Terminology
Consistency
Nodule
Palpable solid lesion up to 1 cm
Extends deeper into the dermis
Can be above , level, or beneath surface
Color
Red
,
pink,
white,
blue
, black,
brown

Erythema or Erythematous
Abnormal redness of the mucosa or gingiva

Pallor
paleness of the skin or mucosal tissues

Cyanotic
Blueish in color due to lack of oxygen
Size
Centimeter, cm
Millimeter, mm
Texture
Bulla
Elevated lesion
Greater than 1 cm in diameter
Serous fluid filled
"Big blister"
Think
Lobule or lobulated
Rounded projection
A segment or lobe that is usually part of the whole
May appear fused together
Macule
Flat, not elevated
Distinguished by a color different from the surrounding tissue
Vary in shape
Papule
Elevated solid lesion
Less than 1 cm in diameter
May be of any color
Pedunculated
Describes an elevated or raised lesion
Attached by a stem-like or stalk base
Much like a mushroom
Pustule
Circumscribed elevations
Vary in size
Contains exudate or pus
Sessile
Describes the base of a lesion
Flat or broad
"wide based lesion"
Vessicle
Elevated lesion
Less than 1 cm in diameter
Serous fluid filled
"Small blister"
Palpate
Evaluate a lesion by feeling it with your fingers
Soft, firm, fluid filled
Consistency, Texture, Color & Size
Corrugated - wrinkled

Fissure - cleft or groove

Papillary -clusters of tiny projections
The Diagnostic Process
Diagnosis requires gathering information and collecting data from various sources that is relevant to the lesion being evaluated.
Radiographic
Diagnostic and Descriptive Terminology
Diffuse
Does not have well defined borders
It is impossible to tell where the lesion begins and ends
Multilocular
Multiple parts or lobes
Soap bubble appearance
Not isloated to a specific area
Radiopaque
Blocks radiation
Appears white or light on a radiograph
Radiolucent
Allows radiation or xrays to penetrate
Dark areas on an xray
Well Circumscribed
Borders are specifically defined
Margins are exact and can be clearly seen
Unilocular
Having one compartment or unit
Learning Objectives
Recognize the 8 categories of the diagnostic process

Define Clinical Diagnostic and Descriptive terminology

Describe clincal appearance using diagnostic terminology

Describe variants of normal
Clinical
Radiographic
Laboratory
Microscopic
Historical
Surgical
Therapeutic
Differential
Variations of Normal
Fordyce's granules
Clusters of sebaceous glands
Appear as small yellow lobules
Most commonly found on the buccal mucosa and the lips
Found in more than 75% of adults
Palatine Torus or Torus Palatinus
Compact bone growth on the palate
Vary in shape
More frequently found in women
Mandibular Tori
Bone growth on the lingual of the mandible, in the area of the premolars
Usually bilateral and often lobulated
Found equally in men and women
Melanin Pigmentation
Melanin is the pigment that gives color to the skin
Most commonly observed in dark-skinned individuals
Linea Alba
"White Line"
Buccal mucosa along the occlusal plane
Very common in clenching or bruxing habits
Lingual Varicosities
Prominent lingual veins on the lateral and ventral surfaces of the tongue
Red to purple in color
More common observed in patients over 60
Describing Elevated Lesions
Clinical Diagnosis
Clinical appearance of the lesion.
Color, shape, location, history.
The radiograph or xray provides
sufficient information to establish
diagnosis.
Laboratory tests include blood, urinalysis.
Cultures can be helpful in determining infection.
Biopsy specimen from
the lesion in question
provides valuable information

Scalpal biopsy is most definitive
Brush test only test the mucosal epithelium
Diagnosis is made during
the surgery procedure
This is the point in the diagnositic process
that the practitioner decides which test
or procedure is needed to make
a definitive diagnosis
Personal history, family history
Past and present medical and dental history
Drug ingestion
History of the lesion
Nutritional deficiencies are
the most commmon diagnosed by
therapeutic means.
Retrocuspid Papillae
Developmental
Raised red nodules
Lingual gingiva of the mandibular cuspids
Leukoedema
Characterized by an opalescent hue of the buccal mucosa
More commonly in black people
When the mucosa is stretched, the tissues appear normal.
Root Resorption
Internal Resorption
and
External Resorption
Apex of the tooth appears shortened
Irregularly shaped
Response to trauma
Full transcript