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Fuel Cell Energy

ISU Assignment
by

Caleb Negaye

on 10 April 2013

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Transcript of Fuel Cell Energy

Fuel Cell Energy What is it? A fuel cell is a device that is used to convert the chemical energy from a fuel cell into electricity by means of a chemical reaction with oxygen or another oxidizing agent.

It has the ability to supply reliable electricity for residential, commercial, industrial, and transportation uses. Fuel cells can either be a renewable source of energy or non-renewable source of energy. This all depends on the sources used to create the energy.

If a renewable source of energy is used for the main source of hydrogen, such as water, then the fuel cell energy would be considered a renewable energy source.

If a nonrenewable source of energy is used for the main source of hydrogen, such as fossil fuels like natural gas, coal, and petroleum, then the fuel cell energy would be labeled as a nonrenewable energy source. Electricity, heat, and water are all produced when fuel cells combine hydrogen and oxygen together. However, as long as hydrogen is supplied, the fuel cell will produce electricity, never losing its charge.

Neither oxygen or hydrogen are found in a pure state. Therefore, they must be obtained from other sources (i.e. air, water-through electrolysis, or hydrocarbon fuel-through reforming).

Luckily, hydrogen and oxygen can be found anywhere in the world, making fuel cells a reliable source of energy. The main function of a fuel cell is to create an electrical current that can be led outside the cell to do its designated objectives such as powering different devices that require electricity (i.e. lightbulbs).

The electrical current that is produced actually returns to the fuel cell, making an electric circuit, additionally because of how the electricity behaves.

Primarily, the chemical reaction that produces this current is the key method to how a fuel cell works. So, how do they actually work? In general, hydrogen atoms enter the fuel cell at the anode where a chemical reaction removes their electrons. These electrons produce the current through the wires to do what it is intended to do.

-A conversion device, called an inverted, is used when an alternating current (AC) is needed. For an alternating current to be supplied, the direct current (DC) of the fuel cell must be routed through the inverter. Oxygen enters the fuel cell at the cathode. At this point, a variation of things may happen, depending on the fuel cell type:

In some situations, the oxygen combines with the returning electrons from the circuit and H ions, which traveled through the electrolyte from the anode.

The oxygen gathers electrons and travels through the electrolyte to the anode where it is to combine with the H ions in other cases. The electrolyte has an important role in this process due to the fact it must permit only the appropriate ions to pass between the anode and cathode.
Other substances traveling through the electrolyte would disrupt the chemical reaction that occurs between the hydrogen and oxygen. There are numerous different types of fuel cells, each working differently. Despite where they combine, being at the anode or cathode, hydrogen and oxygen form water when they combine together, which drains from the fuel cell.
Ultimately, as long as a fuel cell is provided with hydrogen and oxygen, it well continue to generate electricity. How long has it been around? The Evolution of Fuel Cell Energy The concept of fuel cells was first introduced in the early nineteenth century by Humphry Davy; an English chemist and inventor. Pioneering work on what became fuel cells was performed by scientist Christian Frederick Schônebein, a German-Swiss chemist, in 1838.

Although, William Grove, a chemist, physicist, and lawyer is acknowledged with inventing the fuel cell in 1839.

In 1889, Charles Langer and his assistant Ludwig Mond, who researched fuel cells using coal gas as a fuel, initially introduced the term "fuel cell." 1800s Late 1950s and Early 1960s In 1932, Francis Bancon, a Cambridge engineering professor, altered Mond's and Langer's equipment to create the first alkaline fuel cell (AFC). In 1959, Francis Bacon exhibited a practical 5 kW fuel cell system.






Also in this time period, NASA began to develop fuel cell generators for manned space missions. Surprisingly, the first proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) unit was due to this. Willard Thomas Grubb at General Electric was recognized for the invention. This cell was later used in the Gemini space program of the mid 1960s. Early
1900s Environmental awareness had increases amongst governments, businesses, and individuals with the utilization of fuel cell energy. In addition, governments, businesses, and consumers begin to seriously regard the concept of energy efficiency.







The concerns over the availability of oil in this time period lead to the demonstration of many fuel cell vehicles and governments worldwide and large companies carried out research into creating more efficient forms of energy generation, including phosphoric acid fuel cells (PACF). 1970s Development, research, and demonstration work excelled in the use of fuel cells for transportation applications.

In relation to this, the US Navy led studies into the use of fuel cells in submarines. High efficiency, no emissions, and silent operations all contributed to the advantages of this method of using fuel cells. 1980s 1990s Humphry Davy Christian Frederick Schônebein William Grove Ludwig Mond Harry Karl Ihrig fitted an enhanced 15 kW Bucon cell to an Allis-Chalmers agricultural tractor around the same time. A number of fuel cell vehicles were also developed by Allis Chambers Fuel cells were once again regarded as one of the current technologies that was capable of providing energy efficiency and carbon dioxide savings while reducing the dependency of fossil fuels. 2007 Fuel cells began to be sold commercially as auxiliary power units (APU) and for stationary back-up power.

Portable fuel cells have experienced the greatest rapid rate of growth since 2009. This is mainly because the number of fuel cell education kits sold to consumers had significantly increased and by the launch of the Tobisha Dynario fuel cell battery. Today 2000 Also, molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) technology had made significant commercial improvements, especially for large stationary applications. This improved form of technology was sold by different companies worldwide. People had turned their attention to proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) and solid oxide fuel cell (SOFC) applications specifically for small stationary uses. Fuel cells also were used in many ways when they started to be sold to end-users with actual written warranties and service capabilities, upholding the codes and standards of the markets they were sold in. Fuel cell shipments have drastically increased with numerous applications having become available. How are fuel cells used today? Fuel cell energy is utilized in various methods each and every day.

-For applications such as powering buildings, large stationary fuels cells are used.

-For telecom and residential uses, small stationary fuel cells are used.

-Portable power is used for military uses and other mobile applications.

-Fuel cells also are used as replacements for battery power in material handling applications.

-In addition, fuel cells are used as primary power or auxiliary power units (APU) in transportation applications.

-Fuels cells are also used for hydrogen production storage. Large Stationary Applications: The systems that utilize large stationary fuel cells range from 100 kW to more than 5 MW in capacity.
These systems supply reliable power without interruption due to reasons such as grid failures or blackouts because they cam be installed as part of an electric grid or in parallel with it.
They also allow government and business sites to continue working and assists grocers and warehouses to keep freezers and fridges working to prevent spoilage of food products.
Most of these large stationary fuel cells systems are fueled by natural gas, which is nonrenewable. Although, anaerobic digester gas from water waster is used more as a fuel stock, which may be considered a renewable fuel in different areas of the world. Small Stationary Applications: Telecommunications companies install more towers and stations as the number of people who use small stationary devices increases.
Like most fuel cell devices, small stationary fuel cell applications are rugged and durable, reliable,quiet, and commonly consist of long-running power.
These devices are typically in range of 1 to 5 kW, being ideal for residential and small commercial applications. Portable Power Applications: Smaller, portable fuel cell units are being developed by several companies globally for battery charging and auxiliary power for surveillance, emergency response applications, and military uses.
These fuel cells can place batteries and generations and provide uninterrupted power and extended running-times to field computers and critical communications equipment, especially for emergency response devices.
Portable fuel cells are also being developed for other mobile and cell phone charging applications. Materials Handling Applications: Fuel cell forklifts is a prime aspect of the material handling industry of fuel cells that have been greatly consumed in globally.
The can reduce logistics costs due to the being able to operate longer and require less maintenance.
They also take only one to two minutes to refuel, compared to the half hour or longer it takes to charge a battery, which eliminates the need for battery storage and charging rooms. All in all, this leaves more warehouse space for products. Transportation Applications: Fuel cell transportation applications is a highly anticipated industry for the near future. It is anticipated by most major auto manufactures that commercial sales of fuel cell vehicles will commence in 2015.
States in the U.S. such as California, Texas, Delaware, and Connecticut already have fuel cell buses operating on roads.
Fuel cell auxiliary units are also sold an optional method to power electronic appliances in Europe for caravans or campers when parked in remote locations or campsites. Hydrogen Production and Storage: Several companies worldwide are focused on generating and dispensing hydrogen to service the multiple fuel cell applications in action today.
Large chemical companies are putting their efforts towards opening hydrogen fueling stations and dispensers, specifically at warehouses and forklift sites.
Smaller companies however are moving units to help improve and increase the hydrogen infrastructure. Fuel Cells Close To Home: The Canadian industry is internationally acknowledges for its leading role in the development of proton exchange membrane fuel cells with small stationary, portable power, and mobile applications.
Canada is also home to industry-leading industries that have achieved great success in the progress and integration of hydrogen fueling infrastructures and systems.
This country is also a pioneer in the progression of automotive fuel cell technologies and different components of fuel cell vehicles.
In addition, Canada is a leader in the deployment and development of fuel cell bus technology.
-British Columbia transit actually acquires twenty fuel cell buses, making it the largest fleet of its kind in the world. Toronto has some of the world's most efficient fuel cell systems and best researchers in the area of using alternative fuels.
The city is also well known for producing hydrogen through stream methane reforming.
-Interesting fact: The city council approved a three-year project where fuel cell technology will be used in the city to demonstrate how mobile and stationary power operates without harmful emissions. What makes fuel cell energy so good? Advantages: Sustainability: Fuel cells are indeed sustainable. They can provide continuous power with minimal or no pollutants and greenhouse gases emitted into the atmosphere. Therefore, fuel cells have the ability to be very much beneficial for the future.
The limitations of fossil fuel resources and rather the use of renewable sources such as biogas, landfill, and digester gas all compliment the sustainable factor of fuel cells.
Also, hydrogen, a key component to key creating fuel cell energy, can be efficiently produced with a great lack of emissions by using renewable and sustainable energy sources such as wind, solar, and nuclear power, which will allow the production of hydrogen to remain consistent over time.
More importantly, developments are providing evidence that indicates the environmental and energy efficiency of fuel cells continuing as it is now could result in a more sustainable and renewable energy future. - Fuel cells have a greater efficiency than gas or diesel engines.
- Most fuel cells operate quite silently compared to most other energy sources.
- Since there are few moving parts in the system, tending to fuel cells for maintenance is simple.
- The fuel cells are able to a fairly strong source of electric power due to its high power density.
- All vehicles powered by pure hydrogen emit no harmful pollutants. Even if the hydrogen is produced from fossil fuels, only a minimal amount of pollutants would be emitted into the atmosphere.
- Incredibly, a fuel does not run down or require charging, unlike a battery; as long as fuel is provided, it will produce energy in the form of electricity or heat.
-The generation of fuel can be distributed and does not have to be grid-dependent because hydrogen can be produced anywhere water is found. Are there any problems with fuel cells? Disadvantages: - The price of fuel cell vehicles (FCV) is very high compared to other conventional vehicles, making them very difficult to afford for the majority of people.
- Fuel cells actually lose energy as well; it ends up costing more to produce energy than what you actually get out of the fuel cell, additionally adding to the costs of utilizing fuel cell vehicles.
- The durability of fuel cell systems is minimal in certain temperature and humidity ranges.
- Hydrogen fuel cells always have the potential of being extremely dangerous and deadly in result of its high energy content. This may result in large scale incidents like that of the Hindenburg disaster and the hydrogen which had occurred in past years.
- It is difficult for people to retrieve the hydrogen needed to operate their vehicles because the system used to transport gasoline from refineries to local filling stations is not able to be used for hydrogen. - Hydrogen has diminutive energy per unit volume, meaning storing enough hydrogen to operate a vehicle to longer distances may be difficult due to the fact fuel cell vehicles have rather small tanks to store hydrogen.
- Carbon dioxide is produced during the process of hydrogen being purified. Some scientist believe that this is harmful to the earth's atmosphere since other substances, some of which harmful, are mixed in with the hydrogen that is produced. Therefore, fuel cell reactions will produce little amounts of harmful substances, contributing to the accumulation of harmful gases in the atmosphere to an extent.
- It takes longer to fuel and drive shorter distances than other cars with fuel cell-powered vehicles. What type of technology uses fuel cell energy? Fuel Cell Vehicles: Fuel cell vehicles use a completely different propulsion system than normal gasoline-dependent vehicles. They actually are capable of being two to three time more efficient. Fuel cell vehicles use electricity to power their motors. They produce the primary electricity they use from a fuel cell powered by hydrogen.
Beneficially, fuel cell cars release no harmful exhaust emissions into the atmosphere. Being generally fueled by hydrogen , fuel cell vehicles can be fueled with pure hydrogen gas stored directly in the vehicle or retrieved from a secondary fuel that contains hydrogen (i.e. ethanol, methanol, or natural gas). Also, the only things emitted from the use of pure hydrogen is water and heat. Only a small amount of pollutants are released into the atmosphere from the fuel cell vehicles that use secondary fuels.
These vehicles may also acquire advanced technological appliances to improve their efficiency such as regenerative braking systems, which actually capture any energy lost energy during braking, storing it in a large battery. Advantages:
- As long as it has a fuel cell source, a fuel cell car will continue to operate indefinitely.
- Due to the efficiency of fuel cells, less fuel is required to fill up a fuel cell vehicle compared to a car running on standard gasoline.
- For the most part, the hydrogen fuel that is used in fuel cell vehicles is much cleaner than its standard fuel competition.
Disadvantages:
- Fuel cell cars are generally designed with small engine capacities.
- The hydrogen used in fuel cell cars is highly explosive, putting people in extreme danger without proper caring for the cars.
- The production of fuel cell cars at energy plants pollutes the atmosphere with excessive carbon dioxide. Environmental Sustainability Of Fuel Cell Vehicles: If the electricity needed to produce the energy from the fuel cells is generated from sustainable sources, then a fuel cell car would considered environmentally sustainable. Although, it would not be considered environmentally sustainable if fossil fuels are burned to produce the electricity needed.
The electricity for the sustainable fuel cell vehicles is retrieved from environmentally friendly energy sources such as tidal, wave, and hydroelectricity energy.
To add to this, hydrogen can be found anywhere in the world, contributing to the factors that would make it easy to power the fuel cell vehicles. Since hydrogen is so easy to find, fuel cell vehicles will be able to be used for a long time with this availability of hydrogen. Also, the fuel cell vehicles will able to function as long as they have sources to obtain hydrogen from.
Ultimately, fuel cell vehicles be able to remain sustainable for the future with use of sustainable sources. This concludes my presentation. I hope you enjoyed it! Bibliography: By: Caleb 2. 1. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. 25. 26. 27. 28. 29. 30. 31. 32. 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. 39. 40. 41. 42. 43. 44. 45. 46. 47. 48. 49. 50. 51. 52. 53. 54. 55. 56. 57. 58. 59. 60. 61. 62. 63. 64. 65. 66. 67. 68. https://docs.google.com/file/d/0BxnQ4fU2XMtTMndNOXFkbFN3Qm8/edit?usp=sharing
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