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Transcript of Chpt. 2--Research
The Goals of Science
Measurement and Description
Understanding and Prediction
Application and Control
Steps in a Scientific Investigation
1. Formulate a testable hypothesis
2. Select the research method and design
3. Collect the data
4. Analyze the data and draw conclusions
5. Report the findings
what's a hypothesis?
well then, what's a variable?
Advantages of the Scientific Approach
Experimental Research Vocabulary
How does X affect Y?
x=independent variable and
A researcher is interested in how heart rate and blood pressure are affected by viewing a violent film sequence as opposed to a nonviolent film sequence.
What is the independent variable?
What are the dependent variables?
A researcher wants to find out how stimulus complexity and stimulus contrast
(light/dark variation) affect infants' attention to stimuli. He manipulates
complexity and stimulus contrat and measures how long infants stare at various
What are the idependent variables?
What is the dependent variable?
What are the limits of experimental research?
distortion in self-reported data
Chapter 1 and 2 Sample Test Questions
1. Liam is reading a magazine article about a new "wonder drug" and finds himself wondering who participated in the study, and what evidence the claims are based on. Liam's thinking illustrates the idea that
motives and expectations can color our experiences
information needs to be viewed with a certian degree of skepticism
single-cause explanations are often inaccurate
sciences do not exist in a cultural vacuum
In a journal article, the ________ presents an overview of the problem under investigation and quickly reviews previous research in the same area.
An experimenter tests the hypothesis that physical exercise helps people's mood (makes them happier). Subjects in the experimental group participate on Monday and Tuesday and those in the control group on Wednesday and Thursday. What is the independent variable?
the day of the week
the mood (degree of happiness)
True or False: Most scientists hope that ultimately the information they gather will be of some practical value to solve everyday problems
When a researcher's expectations or preferences about the outcome of a study influence the results obtained _____ is said to have occurred.