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Core Proficiency #2: Evidence Based Claims
Transcript of Core Proficiency #2: Evidence Based Claims
The first part of the skill involves students extracting detailed information from a text and grasping how it is conveyed.
The Craft of A Claim:
is used by the CCLS creators to represent any concept that a writer or speaker can use
Writing About It:
The Toulmin Method
Core Proficiency #2:
Evidence Based Claims
Slip or Trip -
An Exploration into Evidence
On your desk is a "crime scene photo". Using the case study on the following slide, work with your table to decide if it was murder or a terrible accident.
At ﬁve-feet-six and a hundred and ten pounds, Queenie Volupides was a sight to behold and to clasp. When she tore out of the house after a tiff with her husband, Arthur, she went to the country club where there was a party going on.
She left the club shortly before one in the morning and invited a few friends to follow her home and have one more drink.
They got to the Volupides house about ten minutes after Queenie, who met them at the door and said, “Something terrible happened. Arthur slipped and fell on the stairs. He was coming down for another drink—he still had the glass in his hand—and I think he’s dead. Oh, my God—what shall I do?
The autopsy conducted later concluded that Arthur had died from a wound on the head and conﬁrmed that he’d been drunk.
Is it an accident? Is it murder?
The second part of the skill requires students to use the information gleaned from the text to make claims.
- Close reading
- Thinking notes
- Collaborative interaction
(jigsaw, think-pair-share, etc)
- Socratic discussion
- Argumentative writing
While You Wait For Me To Begin...
“It’s clear from observing student writing in various contexts that although
adolescents may intend to write an argument, they often see no need to present evidence or show why it is relevant; they merely express (usually vague) opinions. “
--George Hillocks, Jr.
Pick one of the quotes listed below and "focus write" (aka. think about and write) your response to the quote on the 1/2 sheet of white paper on your desk.
“In a persuasive essay, you can select the most favorable evidence, appeal to
emotions, and use style to persuade your readers. Your single purpose is to be
convincing. The same might be said of propaganda and advertising.”
-- George Hillocks, Jr.
Terms we may have already used that mean virtually the same thing:
One of the key differences between the Evidence Based Claim method presented by the CCLS as previous models is that the CCLS desires students to craft their own claims based on their observations and understanding of the material. For this to work, educators must rely heavily on
- text based questions & discussions
- close reading
- guided classroom experiences
The process begins with discussions that focus the student's thoughts on
- what is important in a text
- what stands out or provokes thought
- areas within a piece where a writer seemed to dwell
**I also tell my students to think about the types of questions I asked and where I lead discussions.
Following the discovery process a reader should identify the "why" and "how" using text details to provide evidence of the general statement.
After connecting the details to the discovery, a writer is ready to craft a claim which identifies a strong conclusion he/she came to through the process.
**This is just a brief introduction to using a claim to craft an argument . Further discussion about the argument will occur in Core Proficiencies Part 3. I will post those resources online as soon as I finish the work.
Claim--A conclusion whose merit must be established.
Evidence, Data - (aka "ground") A fact one appeals to as a foundation for the claim.
Warrant--The chain of reasoning from the evidence to the claim.
Backing--Credentials designed to certify the statement expressed in the warrant; backing must be introduced when the warrant itself is not convincing enough to the readers or the listeners.
Rebuttal--Statements recognizing the restrictions which may legitimately be applied to the claim.
Qualifier--Words or phrases expressing the speaker's degree of force or certainty concerning the claim. Such words or phrases
include "probably," "possible," "impossible," "certainly," "presumably," "as far as the evidence goes," and "necessarily."
Sample Student Response:
In the story "Slip or Trip?", Queenie and her husband Arthur quarreled. Margaret left and came back some hours later. When she got home, her husband came down the stairs to get a drink and slipped and fell and died. I conclude she killed Arthur. She was mad at him and saw an opportunity to kill him.
To begin with, Arthur still has his glass in his hand. This is obviously planted. If a person falls while carrying something, then the person will drop the item to stop the fall. There is no way he could have fallen and held his drink. The only conclusion I can come to is that Queenie put the drink in his hand after she murdered him.
Secondly, Queenie and Arthur had a fight earlier that night. She also arrived home 10 minutes before the other guests. There was no one there to see her do it, nor to see him "fall". Additionally, immediately after he fell down the stairs, she had the forethought to cook something on the stove. Her husband just fell down and might be dead and she is worried about tea. Obviously, only a cold killer could do this.....
In light of all of this evidence, only one conclusion is possible: Queenie is a cold-hearted killer.
At your tables use the 1/2 sheet of paper to do the following:
- identify one take away from this workshop that you can apply to your classroom within the next unit of study
- identify any questions you still have about evidence based claims
I have provided you with computer time to craft or create materials for your class that utilize the Common Core Proficiency: Evidence Based Claims
Confused about close reading? Check out my resources on my wiki
- Model Evidence Based Claims through an activity
- Explain how to craft a "claim"
- Examine the state's model of Evidence-Based Claims
- Discuss Toulmin's method of crafting an argument
Here is an elementary example:
The CER Method
Claim = What do you know?
Evidence = How do you know it
Reasoning = Why does your evidence support your claim?
Resources Provided by www.engageny.org and O'Dell Publishing