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Y13 A-Level PE: Psychology

M Timms

on 4 October 2016

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Transcript of Motivation

Extend knowledge of Personality with the introduction of Motivational strategies used in sport.

Discuss how sports people use Achievement Motivation to improve performance.

Establish strategies which a coach can use to improve the motive to achieve and thus enhance performance.
Lesson 3
4 October 2016
Why do some learners/performers achieve
and others don't?

Why are certain performers driven
to be more competitive?
Types of
A motive is seen as a cause of behaviour which energises, directs and sustains the behaviour.

It can be explained as a drive to strive to meet the needs of the situation in which a person finds him or herself. The strength of such a drive (or motive) depends on the person and the situation. Different people will have different types and strengths of motives (drives) to meet the needs of the situation.

In a sporting context, the term motivation implies the driving and striving to succeed, to win, to improve performance, and to pursue goals (having set them in the first place).
"A person who has high levels of achievement motivation would have a tendency to strive for success, persist in the face of failure and experience pride in accomplishment."

D Gill (1986)
Achievement Motivation


Need to Achieve Success (NACH)

This person likes a challenge and likes feedback
Not afraid of failure
Failure is a step towards success
Has high persistence levels - keep trying, keep training
Responsible for their own actions
Want to succeed and complete the task.
Personality Factors
Need to Avoid Failure (NAF)

Avoids challenges
Gives up
Avoids feedback - seen as criticism
More concerned with not making a mistake than looking towards achievement.
Successful performers therefore have a
high NACH & low NAF.
Low achievers are reversed.
Probability of Success


Incentive Value of Success
Situational Factors
Which sportsmen may have a high NACH or a high NAF depending on the role which they play?
Probability of
Incentive Value
of Success
A = region of the chart where a task’s probability of success is low (for example, competing against the World champion), and therefore the sportsperson has to strive very hard to win.

The incentive to achieve success is very high, and the sportsperson will be highly chuffed if he or she wins.
B = region of the chart where probability of success is high (for example, competing in local club match), and the sportsperson therefore doesn’t need to try as hard to win.
Hence the incentive to achieve is low, because the person
expects to win easily, and of course this is not so pleasing to the performer.
Warm Up (5 mins)
When is motivation
at it's highest?

Injury Time...

What should a coach do to increase achievement motivation?
The prime need for a coach is to improve need and motive to achieve (Nach) and reduce the need to avoid failure (Naf) in a sportsperson.

Promote NACH:
Positive Reinforcement
Achievable but challenging goals
Guarantee some success
Increase task difficulty
Probability of success is good; incentive value is high
Use failure as a method of improving.

Reduce NAF:
Negative feedback on effort
Reduce Learned Helplessness (LH)
Avoid situations where defeat is inevitable.
Development of Approach and Avoidance Behaviour
Full transcript